Urinary System
Answers are provided below each question

1. Most reabsorption of substances from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the:

A. glomerulus
B. collecting tubule
C. proximal convoluted tubule
D. ureter
E. distal convoluted tubule.

2. Under normal circumstances, the kidneys produce about _____ liters of glomerular filtrate per day.

A. 1,000
B. 180
C. 110
D. 7.5
E. 1 to 2.

3. As the renal artery approaches the kidney, it branches to supply the renal glomeruli. Place the following in the correct sequence starting from the renal artery.

1) arcuate artery
2) interlobular artery
3) interlobar artery
4) afferent arteriole

A. (2,1,3,4)
B. (2,3, 1,4)
C. (1,3,4,2)
D. (4,3,1,2)
E. (3,1,2,4)

4. ADH is produced in the:

A. Juxtaglomerular cells
B. anterior pituitary gland
C. adrenal cortex
D. hypothalamus
E. posterior pituitary gland.

5. When ADH levels in the blood are high, the collecting ducts are:

A. very impermeable to water
B. very permeable to protein molecules
C. very permeable to water
D. very permeable to sodium and chloride ions
E. none of the preceding.

6. Given the following conditions:

Capsular hydrostatic pressure = 15 mm Hg
Glomerular plasma osmotic pressure = 25 mm
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure = 75 mm Hg

    What is the NET FILTRATION RATE?

A. 35 mm Hg
B. 85 mm Hg
C. 65 mm Hg
D. 115 mm Hg

7. The renal cortex contains:

A. renal pyramids
B. papillae
C. calyces
D. none of the preceding.

MATCHING: Match the following structures (Items A through D) and descriptions.

A. proximal convoluted tubule
B. descending limb of the nephron loop
C. collecting duct
D. ascending limb of the nephron loop.

8. Active transport of sodium; water follows passively
9. Active transport of sodium; impermeable to water
10. passively permeable to water
11. passively permeable to water under ADH stimulation.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

12. The appearance of glucose in the urine:

A. occurs normally
B. is a result of overproduction of angiotensin II
C. is a result of hypoglycemia
D. occurs when the transport carriers for glucose become saturated
E. two of the above.

13. The urinary bladder:

A. has bundles of skeletal muscle in its wall
B. is connected to the exterior by the ureter
C. is innervated by the cranial accessory nerve (XI)
D. is located posterior to the pubic symphysis
E. all of the above.

14. In the proximal convoluted tubule, chloride ions are reabsorbed because of:

A. active transport
B. their involvement in calcium retention
C. the electrical attraction of sodium ions
D. the high osmotic gradient
E. all of the preceding.

15. Which of the following promotes sodium retention and potassium loss from the blood across: the wall of the wall of the distal convoluted tubule?

A. renin
B. angiotensin II
C. aldosterone
D. angiotensin I

16. The process of micturition or urination:

A. involves relaxation of the detrusor muscle
B. requires contraction of the external urethral muscle
C. is a reflex involving sacral segments of the spinal cord
D. all of the above.

17. Granular (juxtaglomerular cells) secrete _____ when there is a fall in _____ ion concentration.

A. renin / chloride
B. carbonic anhydrase / sodium
C. ATPase / potassium
D. renin / sodium
E. carbonic anhydrase / carbon dioxide.

MATCHING. What type of epithelium forms the lining of the following structures? (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once or not at all.)

A) stratified squamous epithelium
B) transitional epithelium
C) simple ciliated columnar epithelium
D) simple cuboidal epithelium
E) simple squamous epithelium.

18. Urinary bladder
19. Vagina
20. Uterine (fallopian) tube
21. Renal pelvis
22. Ureter
23. Proximal convoluted tubule
24. Renal calyces

TRUE OR FALSE: True = A; False = B

25. The region of the distal convoluted tubule in contact with the granular cells of the afferent arteriole is called the macula dense
26. Within each kidney, the interlobar veins empty their blood into the renal vein
27. In the female urinary system, the urethral orifice is situated posterior to the vaginal orifice
28. Natriuretic hormone is produced by cells in the kidneys.
29. Incontinence refers to the inability to control micturition
30. The term cystitis refers to an infection of the urinary bladder
31. The apical membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule cells is impermeable to bicarbonate ions.


  1. If you took a drug that inhibited the reabsorbtion of Na+ in the PCT, you would:
    1. Have an increased urine output
    2. Have a decreased urine output
    3. Have a decreased plasma [bilirubin] and become jaundiced
    4. Have decreased absorption of fats and have grey-white feces
  2. Podocytes make up the:
    1. Visceral layer of the nephron
    2. Visceral layer of the glomerulus
    3. Visceral layer of the renal capsule
    4. Visceral layer of the Bowman's Capsule
  3. Glucose is:
    1. Filtered, reabsorbed, and secreted
    2. Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted
    3. Filtered, and secreted, but not reabsorbed
    4. Filtered, and neither secreted nor reabsorbed
  4. If MAP increased from 120 mmHg to 210 mmHg, GFR would most likely ____________.
  5. Typically, as GFR increases, the [Na+] of the filtrate reaching the DCT will ______________.
  6. What would happen to the GFR if the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid in the capsular space increased?
    1. GFR would increase
    2. GFR would decrease
    3. GFR would not change
  7. Place the following in the correct sequence from the initial formation of urine to its elimination from the body.
    1. Major calyx
    2. Minor calyx
    3. Nephron
    4. Urethra
    5. Ureter
    6. Collecting duct

  8. While the kidneys process about 180L of blood-derived fluids per day, the amount that actually leaves the body is:
    1. 50%, or 90L
    2. 100%, or 180L
    3. 10%, or 18L
    4. 1%, or 1.8L
  9. The ____________ artery sits on the boundary between the cortex and the medulla of the kidney.
    1. Lobar
    2. Interlobar
    3. Arcuate
    4. Segmental
  10. The fluid in the capsular space is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of:
    1. Glucose
    2. Sodium
    3. H+
    4. Albumin
  11. True or False: Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.
  12. True or False: Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
  13. Aldosterone causes:
    1. Decreased K+ in the urine
    2. Increased Na+ in the urine
    3. Increased urine output
    4. Decreased urine output
  14. Creatinine is a:
    1. Chemical that is typically not secreted
    2. Substance typically found in greater amounts in renal arteries than in renal veins
    3. Building block for complex carbohydrates
    4. 2 of the above are correct
  15. During reabsorption, Na+ crosses the apical walls of the proximal tubule cells into the interstitial fluid principally by means of:
    1. Phagocytosis
    2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
    3. Simple diffusion
    4. Active transport
  16. Which of the following is not one of the 3 external coverings of the kidney?
    1. Renal capsule
    2. Adipose capsule
    3. Renal fascia
    4. Renal adventitia
  17. The micturition center is located in the:
    1. Pons
    2. Medulla
    3. Cerebellum
    4. Basal Ganglia
  18. The vasa recta creates the osmotic gradient in the kidney's medulla.
    1. This statement is true
    2. This statement is false because the PCT creates the gradient
    3. This statement is false because the DCT creates the gradient
    4. This statement is false because the loop of Henle creates the gradient
  19. True or False. The significant presence of red blood cells in the urine is normal and healthy
  20. The main solute component of urine is:
    1. Urea
    2. Glucose
    3. Agglutin
    4. Urobilinogen
  21. Which of the following is INCORRECT?
    1. Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of Na+
    2. Aldosterone stimulates the secretion of K+
    3. Aldosterone affects water reabsorption
    4. Aldosterone is made in the hypothalamus and released from the anterior pituitary
  22. The majority of reabsorption occurs in the:
    1. Renal capsule
    2. Proximal convoluted tubule
    3. Collecting duct
    4. Ascending limb of the loop of Henle
  23. Which of the following is found in the renal medulla?
    1. Renal pacemaker cells
    2. Islets of Langerhans
    3. DCT
    4. Loop of Henle
  24. Which of the following would NOT be secreted from the ISF into the filtrate?
    1. Organic acids
    2. Amino acids
    3. Organic bases
    4. Creatinine
  25. Urine with a high concentration of C6H12O6 is:
    1. Normal because this compound is filtered and secreted but not reabsorbed
    2. Normal because this compound is filtered and reabsorbed but not secreted
    3. Abnormal because this compound is filtered and secreted but not reabsorbed
    4. Abnormal because this compound is filtered and reabsorbed but not secreted
  26. Which of the following is incorrect concerning ADH?
    1. Its production is regulated by plasma osmolarity
    2. Its activity is affected by alcohol
    3. It acts on the collecting duct and decreases its permeability to water
    4. It is stored in the posterior pituitary

  27. Which of the following is NOT a unit of the nephron?
    1. Bowman's capsule
    2. PCT
    3. DCT
    4. Medullary papilla
  28. Consider the following structures:

        1) Bowman's capsule
        2) Collecting duct
        3) PCT
        4) DCT
        5) Loop of Henle

    What is the order filtrate follows as it flows through the nephron?
  29. The kidneys are located:
    1. Retroperitoneally
    2. Only within the epigastric region
    3. Superior to the liver
    4. 2 of the above
    5. All of the above
  30. Which of the following is a function of the kidneys?
    1. Release of hormones
    2. Maintenance of plasma pH
    3. Maintenance of plasma [electrolyte]
    4. Gluconeogenesis
    5. All of the above
    6. 2 of the above
  31. Which of the following is part of the renal corpuscle?
    1. Glomerulus
    2. PCT
    3. DCT
    4. Collecting duct
  32. The functional unit of the kidney is the ____________.
  33. Which of the following is NOT a stage in urine formation?
    1. Glomerular filtration
    2. Glomerular secretion
    3. Tubular reabsorption
    4. Tubular secretion
  34. Which of the following is not a means of regulating GFR?
    1. Regulation via skeletal muscle
    2. Regulation via smooth muscle
    3. Hormonal regulation
    4. Neuronal regulation
  35. Increased sympathetic stimulation of afferent arterioles results in:
    1. Increased filtrate volume per unit time
    2. Decreased filtrate volume per unit time
    3. Increased GFR
    4. Decreased ANP release by macula densa cells
  36. Renin is produced by the:
    1. Mesangial cells
    2. Macula densa
    3. Principal cells ofhe DCT
    4. Juxtaglomerular cells
  37. The nephron is:
         a. the site of urine storage
         b. the functional unit of the kidney
         c. the site where ADH is produced
         d. also called the "Bowman's capsule"
  38. Which of the following is NOT a stage of urine formation:
         a. glomerular filtration
         b. glomerular secretion
         c. tubular secretion
         d. tubular reabsorption
  39. Which of the following is NOT a means of regulating glomerular filtration:
         a. muscular regulation
         b. renal autoregulation
         c. hormonal regulation
         d. neuronal regulation
  40. Increased sympathetic nervous system stimulation of afferent arterioles results in:
         a. decreased filtrate production
         b. increased filtrate production
         c. no change in filtration rate
         d. increased kidney function
  41. Renin is produced by:
         a. the glomerulus
         b. macula densa
         c. proximal convuluted tubule
         d. juxtaglomerular cells
  42. The function of the macula densa cells is to:
         a. prevent water reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle
         b. add bicarbonate ions to the tubular filtrate
         c. secrete renin in response to decreased afferent arteriole pressure
         d. monitor NaCl concentration in the filtrate
         e. reabsorb Na+ ions into blood from the filtrate
  43. Atrial naturiuretic peptide works to:
         a. increase afferent arteriole pressure
         b. increase blood flow to the kidney
         c. enhance the effects of ADH
         d. inhibit the effects of aldosterone
         e. increase blood volume
  44. If the level of aldosterone in the blood increases, then:
         a. less sodium is excreted in the urine
         b. less potassium is excreted in the urine
         c. systemic blood pressure will decrease
         d. glomerular filtration will decrease
         e. both c and d
  45. The most important function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) is to:
         a. secrete water and sodium into the filtrate
         b. reabsorb sodium
         c. generate bicarbonate ions in response to decreased blood pH
         d. secrete renin in response to decreased renal blood pressure or blood flow
         e. constrict the afferent arterioles and decrease sodium reabsorption
  46. If the diameter of the afferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the efferent arteriole, then:
         a. the net filtration pressure will decrease
         b. blood pressure in the glomerulus will decrease
         c. GFR will increase
         d. a and b only
         e. a, b and c
  47. From the distal convoluted tubule, filtrate will then be carried to the:
         a. renal corpuscle
         b. collecting duct
         c. nephron loop
         d. proximal convoluted tubule
         e. glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
  48. In a patient who is dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea, which is likely to be higher than normal in blood:
         a. ADH only
         b. aldosterone only
         c. ANP only
         d. both ADH and aldosterone
         e. both ADH and ANP
  49. All of the following are normally found in urine except:
         a. glucose
         b. sodium ions
         c. uric acid
         d. urea
         e. creatinine
  50. In some autoimmune diseases, capillaries may become damaged resulting in and high levels of albumin proteins and blood cells appearing in the urine. Which region of the nephron contains capillaries that, when damaged, could cause this appearance in urine:
         a. renal glomerulus
         b. proximal convoluted tubule
         c. nephron loop
         d. distal tubule
    82) The outermost covering of the kidney is the _____.
      A) cortex
      B) medulla
      C) pelvis
      D) capsule
    83) The kidneys are located in the _____ space.
      A) pelvic cavity
      B) peritoneal cavity
      C) abdominal
      D) retroperitoneal
    84) The entrance into the kidney is called the _____.
      A) sinus
      B) renal column
      C) hilum
      D) pyramid
    85) Which structure is the first to collect the urine?
      A) pelvis
      B) calyx
      C) ureter
      D) urethra
    86) Each minor calyx receives urine from the _____.
      A) renal papillae
      B) pelvis
      C) ureter
      D) columns
    87) The renal pyramids are located within the _____.
      A) column
      B) cortex
      C) medulla
      D) pelvis
    88) The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by _____.
      A) parallel blood vessels
      B) microtubules
      C) connective tissue
      D) nerve fibers
    89) What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
      A) alveolus
      B) renal pyramid
      C) renal pelvis
      D) nephron
    90) The kidney secretes _____ for the purpose of stimulating bone marrow activity.
      A) renin
      B) aldosterone
      C) erythropoietin
      D) somatomedin
    91) The kidney secretes _____, which is an enzyme-hormone that raises blood pressure.
      A) aldosterone
      B) renin
      C) angiotensinogen
      D) angiotensin II
    92) What is the function of the renal system?
      A) maintain blood pH
      B) regulate blood pressure
      C) control blood concentration
      D) all of these
    93) How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys?
      A) 10%
      B) 25%
      C) 50%
      D) 65%
    94) Which blood vessel delivers blood to the cortex?
      A) interlobular artery
      B) arcuate artery
      C) interlobar artery
      D) efferent arteriole
    95) The renal corpuscle is comprised of a glomerulus and _____.
      A) proximal convoluted tubule
      B) Bowman's capsule
      C) loop of Henle
      D) distal convoluted tubule
    96) Which section of the nephron is after the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
      A) descending limb of the loop
      B) proximal convoluted tubule
      C) distal convoluted tubule
      D) collecting duct
    97) The last part of a nephron is the _____.
      A) collecting duct
      B) renal papilla
      C) distal convoluted tubule
      D) glomerulus
    98) Which area actually secretes renin into the blood?
      A) macula densa
      B) juxtaglomerular apparatus
      C) juxtaglomerular cells
      D) cortical nephron
    99) Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the nephron?
      A) efferent arteriole
      B) vasa recta
      C) peritubular capillary
      D) interlobular vein
    100) Which blood vessels surround the loops of Henle?
      A) vasa recta
      B) peritubular capillaries
      C) interlobular arteries
      D) efferent arterioles
    101) Which process is most affected by blood pressure?
      A) tubular secretion
      B) tubular reabsorption
      C) glomerular filtration
      D) loop of Henle diffusion
    102) Which of the following are not found in the glomerular filtrate?
      A) glucose
      B) protein
      C) uric acid
      D) creatinine
    103) Which muscle metabolism waste product is eliminated by the kidneys?
      A) urea
      B) uric acid
      C) creatine
      D) creatinine
    104) Which of these has the highest concentration in the urine?
      A) glucose
      B) sodium
      C) uric acid
      D) phosphate
    105) Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium?
      A) chloride
      B) potassium
      C) calcium
      D) magnesium
    106) What is the average glomerular filtration rate?
      A) 10L per day
      B) 180L per day
      C) 1,500 ml per day
      D) 1 ml per minute
    107) Which of the following is usually not found in the urine?
      A) magnesium
      B) urea
      C) uric acid
      D) glucose
    108) How much urine is formed in 24 hours?
      A) 12 liters
      B) 100 ml
      C) 1.5L
      D) 3,000cc
    109) Renin acts on _____ to convert it to angiotensin I.
      A) angiotensin II
      B) angiotensinogen
      C) ACE
      D) aldosterone
    110) The targets of angiotensin II are blood vessels and _____.
      A) nerves
      B) adrenal cortex
      C) adrenal medulla
      D) kidney nephron
    111) Tubular reabsorption occurs from the nephron tubules into the _____.
      A) loop of Henle
      B) peritubular capillaries
      C) renal corpuscle
      D) renal pyramid
    112) Most tubular reabsorption occurs at the _____.
      A) loop of Henle
      B) distal convoluted tubule
      C) proximal convoluted tubule
      D) glomerulus
    113) Where are most microvilli found?
      A) loop of Henle
      B) distal convoluted tubule
      C) loop of Henle
      D) proximal convoluted tubule
    114) Which of the following occurred by active transport?
      A) albumin in the urine
      B) creatine in the urine
      C) reabsorption of water at the proximal tubule
      D) reabsorption of amino acids
    115) Which of these does not operate under a renal threshold mechanism?
      A) creatine
      B) ascorbic acid
      C) sodium
      D) citric acid
    116) The action of aldosterone is to increase _____.
      A) sodium elimination
      B) sodium reabsorption
      C) potassium reabsorption
      D) chloride excretion
    117) How much sodium is actively reabsorbed by the proximal segment of the nephron?
      A) 10%
      B) 1%
      C) 70%
      D) 99%
    118) The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the _____.
      A) proximal convoluted tubule
      B) loop of Henle
      C) distal convoluted tubule
      D) collecting ducts
    119) The fluid in the descending limb of the loop of Henle is _____ relative to the capillaries.
      A) isotonic
      B) weakly hypotonic
      C) strongly hypotonic
      D) hypertonic
    120) The function of the countercurrent multiplier is to _____.
      A) increase the concentration of NaCl
      B) decrease the concentration of NaCl
      C) change the blood levels of potassium
      D) conserve potassium
    121) What affect does ADH have on urine output?
      A) minimal
      B) increases
      C) decreases
      D) maintains
    122) Where does ADH have its greatest effect?
      A) loop of Henle
      B) proximal convoluted tubule
      C) distal convoluted tubule
      D) glomerulus
    123) Eating large amounts of meat will increase the levels of _____ in the blood.
      A) protein
      B) creatinine
      C) urea
      D) uric acid
    124) Uric acid results from _____ metabolism.
      A) protein
      B) carbohydrate
      C) purine
      D) pyrimidine
    125) Renal secretion of a compound usually occurs from the _____ into the distal convoluted tubule.
      A) loop of Henle
      B) glomerulus
      C) vasa recta
      D) peritubular capillaries
    126) Which of these is not usually secreted by the kidneys?
      A) creatine
      B) creatinine
      C) H+
      D) penicillin
    127) The compound used to assess the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is _____.
      A) creatinine
      B) inulin
      C) para-aminohippuric acid
      D) creatine
    128) Which of these could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids?
      A) urea
      B) uric acid
      C) glycine
      D) ketone
    129) Vigorous exercise could release high amounts of _____ into the urine.
      A) glucose
      B) uric acid
      C) albumin
      D) ascorbic acid
    130) What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder?
      A) gravity
      B) hydrostatic pressure
      C) peristalsis
      D) osmotic pressure
    131) Renal calculi are usually comprised of the following except which one?
      A) calcium oxalate
      B) cholesterol
      C) uric acid
      D) magnesium phosphate
    132) The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of _____.
      A) smooth muscle
      B) squamous epithelium
      C) transitional epithelium
      D) simple columnar epithelium
    133) Which of these is under voluntary control?
      A) urethra
      B) detrusor muscle
      C) internal sphincter
      D) external sphincter
    134) The micturition reflex is centered in the _____.
      A) medulla
      B) sacral cord
      C) hypothalamus
      D) lumbar cord

    135) Choose the statement that does not correctly characterize the kidneys.
      A) The kidneys are positioned retroperitoneally.
      B) The right kidney is usually 1.5 to 2 centimeters higher than the left one.
      C) The kidney is padded by a layer of fat.
      D) Inside the kidney there is a hollow chamber called the renal sinus.
    136) The granular appearance of the renal cortex is due to ________________.
      A) the positioning of blood vessels within this area
      B) polycystic kidney disease
      C) the random distribution of nephrons in this area
      D) the positioning of the renal columns
    137) Which of these is not a function of the kidneys?
      A) The kidneys deactivate vitamin D and stimulate the activity of osteoclasts.
      B) The kidneys help control the rate of red blood cell production.
      C) The kidneys help to regulate blood pressure.
      D) The kidneys regulate the composition, volume, and pH of body fluids.
    138) The final branches of the interlobular arteries give rise to the _________________ that carry blood to the nephrons.
      A) interlobar arteries
      B) arciform arteries
      C) efferent arterioles
      D) afferent arterioles
    139) Choose the one trait that does not characterize the structure of a nephron.
      A) There are two coiled portions of the renal tubule.
      B) The glomerular capsule contains podocytes and slit pores.
      C) Blood that will be filtered flows into the glomerular capsule.
      D) Several nephron tubules merge to form a collecting duct.
    140) The concentrations of substances in the plasma, in the glomerular filtrate, and in urine differ in what way?
      A) Plasma contains the most water, glomerular filtrate contains less water, and urine contains the least.
      B) Plasma and glomerular filtrate are virtually identical, but urine contains proportionately more waste products.
      C) Plasma differs from glomerular filtrate and urine, which have virtually identical concentrations of substances.
      D) All three have the same concentrations of nutrients and waste materials, but differ in the amount of proteinaceous material they contain.
    141) Which force favors filtration?
      A) glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure
      B) capsular hydrostatic pressure
      C) glomerular capillary osmotic pressure
      D) capsular osmotic pressure
    142) Which factor does not affect glomerular filtration rate?
      A) blood pressure
      B) osmotic pressure of the glomerular filtrate
      C) plasma osmotic pressure
      D) concentration of leukocytes in the blood
    143) Juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete _______________ when _______________.
      A) angiotensin-converting enzyme; blood pressure increases
      B) potassium; chloride concentration declines
      C) renin; blood pressure drops
      D) atrial natriuretic peptide; blood volume drops
    144) Tubular reabsorption is responsible for retaining nutrients the body requires. Most tubular reabsorption occurs in the _______________ where microvilli, and their numerous carrier proteins, increase the surface area available for reabsorption.
      A) distal convoluted tubule
      B) proximal convoluted tubule
      C) collecting duct
      D) nephron loop
    145) Most small proteins are reabsorbed by _______________.
      A) active transport
      B) osmosis
      C) facilitated diffusion
      D) pinocytosis
    146) Within the renal tubule, two hormones play a role in determining the final volume and sodium concentration of the urine. The hormone _______________ regulates sodium reabsorption, while ________________ regulates water reabsorption.
      A) aldosterone; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
      B) cortisol; atrial natriuretic peptide
      C) renin; angiotensin II
      D) antidiuretic hormone (ADH); epinephrine
    147) Why is the plant compound known as inulin the best substance to use to measure renal clearance?
      A) Inulin tastes good, so patients are more apt to be cooperative.
      B) Inulin is neither reabsorbed or actively secreted into the filtrate.
      C) Inulin colors the filtrate and thus facilitates scanning of the kidney.
      D) Inulin is readily available and inexpensive, and thus makes measuring renal clearance fairly simple.
    148) Peristaltic muscular contractions are important for conveying urine through the excretory system, much like peristalsis in the digestive tract. Peristalsis of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder is controlled by ______________.
      A) conscious control of the skeletal muscle
      B) sympathetic nervous impulses
      C) parasympathetic nervous impulses
      D) impulses from the cerebral cortex
    149) In males as well as in females, the external urethral sphincter is made up of skeletal muscle, and is thus under voluntary control. Where is the external urethral sphincter located in males?
      A) within the urogenital diaphragm
      B) within the penile urethra
      C) at the external urethral orifice
      D) within the prostatic urethra
    150) Which structure is last in the sequence of urine flow?
      A) ureter
      B) kidney
      C) bladder
      D) urethra
    151) The outermost structure of a kidney is the _____.
      A) cortex
      B) medulla
      C) capsule
      D) pelvis
    152) What is the main factor that causes urine to enter the urinary bladder?
      A) pressure
      B) peristalsis
      C) gravity
      D) osmosis
    153) What is the main factor that promotes bladder infections in the female?
      A) length of urethra
      B) presence of bacteria in rectum
      C) hygiene
      D) dietary factors
    154) Which system functions in the excretion of soluble nitrogenous wastes?
      A) gastrointestinal
      B) pulmonary
      C) urinary
      D) integumentary
    155) The pyramids are areas located within the _____ of the kidney.
      A) cortex
      B) pelvis
      C) capsule
      D) medulla
    156) The ureter directly receives urine from the _____ of the kidney.
      A) cortex
      B) pelvis
      C) medulla
      D) pyramid
    157) The structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the _____.
      A) proximal convoluted tubule
      B) distal convoluted tubule
      C) Bowman capsule
      D) loop of Henle
    158) Which vessel directs blood into the glomerulus?
      A) renal artery
      B) afferent arteriole
      C) efferent arteriole
      D) peritubular capillaries
    159) In which area can the term urine be correctly used?
      A) Bowman's capsule
      B) collecting duct
      C) nephron
      D) loop of Henle
    160) Where does most selective reabsorption occur?
      A) loop of Henle
      B) glomerulus
      C) distal convoluted tubule
      D)proximal convoluted tubule


    161) Chronic glomerulonephritis is usually a renal infection associated with streptococcal bacteria.
      A) True
      B) False
    162) The glomerulus most closely resembles an area of capillaries.
      A) True
      B) False
    163) An increase in the level of blood urea usually indicates renal or liver dysfunction.
      A) True
      B) False
    164) High blood pressure is inversely proportional to the rate of urine formation.
      A) True
      B) False
    165) The capsular hydrostatic pressure is usually higher than the glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
      A) True
      B) False
    166) A drug that is an ACE inhibitor will lower blood pressure by inhibiting conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
      A) True
      B) False
    167) During trauma with significant loss of blood, the release of renin will be inhibited.
      A) True
      B) False
    168) The kidneys have the capability of controlling their own blood flow independent of general controls for circulation of organs such as the pancreas.
      A) True
      B) False
    169) The reason that most persons only have trace amounts of albumin in the urine is that most of it is returned to the blood by reabsorption.
      A) True
      B) False
    170) The appearance of glycosuria indicates that the renal plasma threshold has been exceeded.
      A) True
      B) False
    171) Vitamin C will appear in the urine when an excess is consumed in the diet or supplements.
      A) True
      B) False
    172) The nephrotic syndrome usually causes hypoproteinemia, proteinuria and generalized edema.
      A) True
      B) False
    173) Ions such as chloride usually passively follow the movement of cations to achieve electrical balance.
      A) True
      B) False
    174) Water will move from a hypotonic to a hypertonic area by osmosis.
      A) True
      B) False
    175) An increase in ADH production will tend to make the blood more hypertonic.
      A) True
      B) False
    176) Excessive sweating will usually cause a person to withhold their secretion of ADH.
      A) True
      B) False
    177) Aldosterone and ADH tend to have the same effect on blood concentration.
      A) True
      B) False
    178) Gout is a disease that causes uric acid crystals to form in joints.
      A) True
      B) False
    179) The secretion of H+ and reabsorption of bicarbonate anions are important pH regulating mechanisms of the kidney.
      A) True
      B) False
    180) PAH is a plasma clearance test that can be used to assess plasma flow through the kidneys.
      A) True
      B) False
    181) Infants have a greater probability of dehydrating than adults.
      A) True
      B) False
    182) Cystitis could spread from the bladder to the kidneys through the urethra.
      A) True
      B) False
    183) The membranous urethra is the portion found in males as well as females.
      A) True
      B) False
    184) In the female, the urinary bladder lies posterior to the uterus and vagina.
      A) True
      B) False
    185) It is normal for urine and semen to mix in the male.
      A) True
      B) False
    186) Renal calculi are commonly comprised of urea and calcium salt precipitates.
      A) True
      B) False
    187) The internal urethral sphincter is totally under parasympathetic, autonomic control.
      A) True
      B) False
    188) Persons with spinal cord damage in the lumbar area will no longer have urination reflexes.
      A) True
      B) False
    189) There are about one million nephrons in each kidney.
      A) True
      B) False