Special Senses
Answers are provided below each question

1. The transmission of sound waves through the tympanic cavity of the middle ear occurs through:

A. air
B. nerve fibers
C. bone
D. fluid
E. jelly-like vitreous humor

2. The two sac-like structures of the inner ear called the utricle and saccule:

A. contain a fluid called perilymph
B. are part of the membranous labyrinth within the vestibule
C. form the connection between the semicircular canals and the vestibule
D. function as part of the auditory system
E. answers A and C.

3. Which of the following is not one of the auditory ossicles?

A. malleus
B. incus
C. stapedius

4. Middle ear infection may follow a throat infection because:

A. the auditory (Eustachian) tube opens into the base of the inner ear
B. the pharyngeal (throat) mucosa is continuous with the mucosa of the middle ear
C. the sphenoid sinus opens into the tympanic cavity of the middle ear
D. the vestibulocochlear nerve passes through the tympanic cavity
E. answers A and D.

5. The waxy material in the external auditory canal (meatus) is the product of

A. endolymphatic sacs
B. tarsal glands
C. lacrimal glands
D. ceruminous glands
E. none of the preceding.

6. The auricle or pinna of the outer ear contains:

A. fibroelastic cartilage
B. elastic cartilage
C. hyaline cartilage
D. osseous tissue
E. hemopoietic tissue.

7. In the physiology of hearing, which action is it that generates an action potential that causes release of a neurotransmitter substance?

A. movement of cells in the basilar membrane against the spiral organ (=organ of Corti)
B. pressure waves on cells of the vestibular membrane
C. movement of the spiral organ hair cells against the rectorial membrane
D. movement of the membrane covering the round window

8. Otoliths (crystals of CaCO3) are located in the:

A. utricle
B. semicircular ducts
C. saccule
D. answers A and C.

MATCHING: Match the type of fluid (Endolymph or Perilymph) that is found within the cavities or spaces of the appropriate structures. Items A and B may be used more than once.

A) perilymph
B) endolymph

9. Scala vestibuli.
10. Cochlear duct.
11. Semicircular ducts.
12. Utricle.
13. Scala tympani.
14. Vestibule.
15. Semicircular canals.
16. Saccule.

MATCHING: INNER EAR (Note: Items A and B may be used more than once.)

A) Membranous labyrinth
B) bony or osseous labyrinth.

17. Semicircular ducts.
18. Utricle.
19. Cochlea.
20. Vestibule.
21. Saccule.
22. Semicircular canals.
23. Cochlear duct.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

24. Aqueous humor:

A. provides nutrients for the retina
B. is produced from capillaries in the iris
C. can cause cataracts if overproduced
D. is present in the anterior and posterior chambers
E. all of the above.

25. A lesion that destroyed the left optic tract of a boy affected his eye by eliminating action potentials (=impulses) that would normally have been generated in response to light in the:

A. nasal (medial) retina of the left eye
B. nasal (medial) retina of the right eye
C. the temporal (lateral) retina of the left eye
D. answers A and C
E. answers B and C.

26. Which of the following is not part of the vascular layer or uvea?

A. cornea
B. choroid
C. ciliary body
D. iris
E. answers C and D.

27. During embryonic development, the lens of the eye forms:

A. from the rim or distal portion of the retina
B. as part of the fibrous tunic, specifically the sclera
C. from a condensation of aqueous humor
D. from the lateral wall of the diencephalon
E. none of the above.

28. Obstruction of the scleral venous sinus (=canal of Schlemm) interferes with the:

A. drainage of vitreous humor
B. drainage of tears into the lacrimal sac
C. drainage of the tarsal glands
D. drainage of aqueous humor
E. flow of blood through the ciliary body capillaries.

29. Which of the following cannot be seen as one looks into the eye through an ophthalmoscope?

A. macula lutea
B. optic chiasma
C. fovea centralis
D. optic disc.

30. A person with an abnormally short eyeball (anterior to posterior) would be ____ and would wear ____ lenses to correct their vision.

A. nearsighted / concave
B. farsighted concave
C. nearsighted / convex
D. farsighted convex.

31. The perception of color comes from all the following except:

A. red cones
B. yellow cones
C. green cones
D. blue cones
E. answers A and D.

32. The visible outer white surface of the eye is covered by a distinctive epithelium continuous with the inner lining of the eyelids. This epithelium is called the:

A. palpebrae
B. fornix
C. coneal epithelium
D. conjunctiva
E. none of the preceding.

33. What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

A. cornea
B. pupil
C. lens
D. ciliary body
E. iris.

34. Vision is most acute when light rays are brought to focus on the:

A. fovea centralis
B. the outermost layer of the retina
C. optic disc
D. cells in the occipital lobes of the brain
E. none of the preceding.

35. Night blindness can be treated with:

A. vitamin C
B. vitamin D
C. vitamin K
D. none of the preceding.

36. Loss of the sense of taste on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue might be due to injury to:

A. cranial nerve VII
B. cranial nerve III
C. cranial nerve IX
D. cranial nerve V.

MATCHING: Sense Organs (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.)

A) gustatory cells
B) macula lutea
C) crista ampullaris
D) macula
E) spiral organ (organ of Corti).

37. A group of hair cells associated with taste.
38. The gelatinous membrane associated with this group of hair cells contains crystals of calcium carbonate.
39. A group of hair cells located in the saccule.
40. A group of hair cells associated with a cupola.
41. The sense organ of static equilibrium.
42. A group of hair cells located in the utricle.
43. Hair cells located on the vallate and fungiform papillae.
44. A group of hair cells associated with the rectorial membrane.
45. The sense organ of dynamic (angular) equilibrium.
46. A group of hair cells located in the cochlea duct.
47. The sense organ of hearing.
48. A yellowish group of cells surrounding the fovea centralism
49. A group of hair cells. located in the ampulla.

MATCHING: Cranial nerves and muscles associated with sense organs. Items A through E may be used more than once.

A) oculomotor
B) facial
C) trigeminal
D) abducens E. trochlear

50. Superior oblique
51. Superior rectus.
52. Orbicularis oculi.
53. Medial rectus.
54. Levator palpebrae superioris.
55. Lateral rectus.
56. Inferior oblique.
57. Inferior rectus.
58. Tensor tympani.

TRUE OR FALSE: True = A; False = B

59. The function of the lens is to bend or refract light rays and focus them on the optic disc.
60. Tears contain a bactericidal enzyme called lysosome.
61. The conjunctiva is a serous membrane.
62. The sensation of pressure is associated with Pacinian or lamellated corpuscles.
63. Damage to the median rectus eyeball muscles would probably affect convergence of the eyeballs.

MATCHING: Retinal Cells. (Note: Letters may be used more than once, but only one letter per space.)

A) Ganglion cells
B) Bipolar cells
C) Both A and B
D) Neither A nor B.

64. Contact the vitreous humor.
65. Contain the purple pigment known as rhodopsin.
66. Modified forebrain cells.
67. Axons of these cells form the optic nerve.
68. Contact the choroid layer.
69. Cells contain melanin.
70. Cells are multipolar neurons.
71. These cells synapse with ganglion cells.
72. These cells provide daylight vision.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

73. Receptors that respond quickly to a stimulus but then adapt (sensory adaptation) and decrease their firing rate are called:

A. phasic receptors
B. sensory receptors
C. somatic receptors
D. proprioceptors
E. tonic receptors.

74. Which describes the effect of the sympathetic system on the eye pupil and the muscles involved in the action?

A. dilates / circular muscles
B. constricts circular muscles
C. dilates / radial muscles
D. constricts radial muscles.

75. How many different modalities are associated with olfaction?

A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four
E. hundreds or even thousands.

76. The bone that contains the osseous labyrinth is the:

A. temporal bone
B. occipital bone
C. ethmoid cribriform plate
D. lacrimal bone
E. none of the preceding.

77. During embryonic development the tympanic cavity develops from the:

A. 2nd pharyngeal pouch
B. optic vesicle
C. 1st bronchial groove
D. wall of the diencephalon
E. 1st pharyngeal pouch.

78. The position of joints and the state of muscular contraction is monitored by:

A. nocireceptors
B. baroreceptors
C. thermoreceptors
D. chemoreceptors
E. proprioceptors.

MATCHING. Items A through E may be used more than once.

A) Presbyopia
B) cataract
C) glaucoma
D) myopia
E) hyperopia

79. Clouding of the lens.
80. Elongation of the eyeball.
81. Loss of elasticity of the lens with aging.
82. Compression of, and loss of fibers in the optic nerve.
83. Associated with an increase in intraocular pressure.
84. Eyeball is too short.
85. The lens tends to lose its ability to accommodate.
86. Often referred to as nearsightedness.


87. The organs of taste are called:

A. papillae
B. taste pores
C. taste hairs
D. taste buds
E. none of the preceding.

88. A cut on the finger would activate which receptors?

B. nociceptors
C. Ruffini corpuscles
D. chemoreceptors
E. none of the preceding.

89. Receptors for general senses provide information for all the following except:

A. temperature
B. pain
C. touch
D. sight
E. two of the preceding.

90. Receptors for light touch are called and they are located in the

A. Meissner's corpuscles epidermis
B. bulbs of Krause / dermis
C. Pacinian corpuscles epidermis
D. Meissner's corpuscles / dermis
E. Ruffini corpuscles / hypodermis.

91. The oval window is located at the base of the:

A. scala vestibule
B. auditory tube
C. cochlear duct
D. scala tympani
E. external auditory canal

TRUE AND FALSE: True = A; False= B.

92. Another name for the vestibular membrane is eardrum.
93. Another name for the optic chiasma is the blind spot.
94. A person can see better during the day than at night because there are more cones within the retina than rods.
95. The visual image is inverted on the retina.
96. The nasolacrimal ducts empty into the lacrimal sacs.
97. The ear ossicles constitute the bony labyrinth.
98. Bending of light rays is called refraction.
99. The stapes transmits vibrations to the oval window.


  1. Sympathetic stimulation of the iris causes:
    1. Astigmatism
    2. Pupillary constriction
    3. Pupillary dilation
    4. Vitreous secretion
    5. Decreased glucose reduction in iris smooth muscle
  2. Cone cells are photoreceptors that respond to:
    1. Low light levels
    2. Red light ONLY
    3. Light reflected from distant objects
    4. Light with wavelengths greater than 2500nm
    5. Colored light
  3. The region where the lens focuses the image onto the retina is the:
    1. Optic nerve
    2. Fovea
    3. Pupil
    4. Blind spot
    5. Infundibulum
  4. The fluid that fills the posterior chamber of the eye is the:
    1. Lachrymal fluid
    2. Lacrimal fluid
    3. Aqueous humor
    4. Choroid humor
    5. Vitreous humor
  5. The major light absorbing pigment in retinal photoreceptors is:
    1. Rhodopsin
    2. Cone opsin
    3. Melanin
    4. Asparagine
    5. Mesophyll
  6. Photoreceptors release more neurotransmitters in (bright light - darkness).
106) Sounds are detected by _____- receptors.
  A) chemo
  B) thermo
  C) mechano
  D) photo
107) The _____ are the actual areas that respond to chemical stimulations for the sense of smell.
  A) olfactory lobes
  B) olfactory mucous membrane cells
  C) cilia on olfactory cells
  D) olfactory organs
108) The olfactory receptor cells are examples of _____ neurons.
  A) sensory
  B) multipolar
  C) association
  D) bipolar
109) Which area allows one to perceive the aroma of a pizza?
  A) olfactory bulb
  B) olfactory lobe
  C) olfactory cortex
  D) olfactory tracts
110) Which sense is most likely to adapt rapidly?
  A) taste
  B) smell
  C) hearing
  D) vision
111) A person aged 21 will probably lose _____ of their smell at 22.
  A) none
  B) 50%
  C) 1%
  D) 5%
112) The visible elevations on the tongue that contain the receptors for taste are the _____.
  A) taste buds
  B) taste pores
  C) papillae
  D) gustatory cells
113) Which of the following could be detected on the back of the tongue?
  A) sweet
  B) sour
  C) salty
  D) bitter
114) Which of these does not belong with the rest?
  A) strychnine
  B) nicotine
  C) alkaline
  D) alkaloid
115) The nerves that convey taste sensations, are the following except which one?
  A) VII
  C) IX
  D) vagus
116) The gustatory cortex is located within the _____lobe.
  A) temporal
  B) parietal
  C) occipital
  D) frontal
117) Which of these does not belong with the others?
  A) pinna
  B) external ear
  C) ceruminous glands
  D) malleus
118) The purpose of the auricle is to _____sound waves.
  A) dampen
  B) increase the intensity of
  C) act as a collector of
  D) vibrate in response to
119) The first structure to vibrate in response to sounds is _____.
  A) auricle
  B) malleus
  C) organ of Corti
  D) tympanic membrane
120) The following belong together except which one?
  A) incus
  B) tympanic cavity
  C) middle ear
  D) cochlear duct
121) The purpose of the ossicles is to _____ the incoming vibrations.
  A) lessen the intensity of
  B) increase the force of
  C) change the wavelength of
  D) move with
122) The stapes sends its vibrations to the _____.
  A) incus
  B) tympanic membrane
  C) oval window
  D) round window
123) Which of these does not belong with the others?
  A) tympanic reflex
  B) stapedius
  C) increase sound
  D) decrease sound
124) The auditory tube acts to equalize pressure between the middle ear and _____.
  A) throat
  B) inner ear
  C) outer ear
  D) cochlea
125) The term labyrinth refers to the appearance of the _____.
  A) outer ear
  B) inner ear
  C) middle ear
  D) vestibule
126) The membranous labyrinth contains _____fluid.
  A) cerebrospinal
  B) plasma
  C) endolymph
  D) perilymph
127) The portion of the inner ear that detects sounds, is the _____.
  A) semicircular canals
  B) osseous labyrinth
  C) vestibule
  D) cochlea
128) Reissner's membrane separates the cochlear duct from the _____.
  A) round window
  B) scala vestibuli
  C) scala tympani
  D) basilar membrane
129) Vibrations from the _____ reach the scala vestibuli first.
  A) round window
  B) scala tympani
  C) oval window
  D) cochlear duct
130) The cells that convert vibrations into neurological impulses are the _____ cells.
  A) hair
  B) otolith
  C) basilar membrane
  D) crista acoustica
131) The connection between the cochlear hair cells and the VIII cranial nerve are made by _____.
  A) direct contact
  B) release of neurotransmitter
  C) the axons in contact
  D) the dendrites in contact
132) The intensity of sounds is measured in units of _____.
  A) mv
  B) amperes
  C) daltons
  D) dB
133) The auditory perception center is located within the _____.
  A) medial geniculate body of thalamus
  B) midbrain
  C) temporal lobe
  D) medulla oblongata
134) Which type of deafness can be treated by a cochlear implant?
  A) presbycusis
  B) conductive
  C) sensorineural
  D) otosclerosis
135) The following belong together except which one?
  A) dynamic equilibrium
  B) vestibule
  C) static equilibrium
  D) utricle
136) The maculae can be found in the _____.
  A) cochlear duct
  B) saccule
  C) semicircular canals
  D) semicircular ducts
137) Stimulation of the crista ampullaris results in _____.
  A) deafness
  B) loud sounds
  C) feeling of motion
  D) a sense of body position
138) The term for eyelid is _____.
  A) conjunctiva
  B) sclera
  C) levator palpebrae
  D) palpebra
139) Tears drain into the openings of the _____.
  A) puncta
  B) lacrimal sac
  C) canaliculi
  D) nasolacrimal duct
140) Movement of the eyeball is effected by muscles innervated mainly by the _____nerve.
  A) VI
  B) IV
  C) oculomotor
  D) vagus
141) The outer covering of the eye is called the _____.
  A) vascular tunic
  B) conjunctiva
  C) sclera
  D) choroid layer
142) The suspensory ligaments attach to the _____.
  A) lens
  B) sclera
  C) canal of Schlemm
  D) iris
143) The process of adjusting vision from a near to a distant object is called _____.
  A) adaptation
  B) accommodation
  C) amblyopia
  D) cataracts
144) An increase in aqueous fluid pressure is a symptom of _____.
  A) cataract
  B) migraine
  C) glaucoma
  D) hyperopia
145) Which of the following is the first to come into contact with light?
  A) rods
  B) bipolar neurons
  C) cones
  D) ganglion cells
146) The point of sharpest retinal vision is called the _____.
  A) fovea centralis
  B) macula lutea
  C) vitreous body
  D) optic disk
147) Which of the following is decomposed under light?
  A) vitamin A
  B) retinene
  C) rhodopsin
  D) iodopsin
148) A sensory receptor capable of detecting changes in hydrogen ion concentration is more accurately described as a ______________.
  A) thermoreceptor
  B) pain receptor
  C) mechanoreceptor
  D) chemoreceptor
149) Which of these statements about the sense of smell is not true?
  A) Olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons that are not replaced when damaged.
  B) Chemicals are received by specific plasma membrane receptors in the olfactory receptor cells.
  C) Olfactory receptors do not adapt quickly.
  D) The main areas of the brain that interpret the sense of smell lie in the temporal and frontal lobes.
150) The portion(s) of the tongue that actually perceives taste is/are the _____________.
  A) taste hairs
  B) papillae
  C) epithelium of tongue
  D) taste buds
151) How do the senses of smell and taste differ?
  A) They differ in the types of receptors they employ.
  B) They differ in the reproductive rate of the receptors.
  C) They differ in their rate of sensory adaptation.
  D) They do not both employ cilia or hair-like extension of their receptor cells.
152) Why do odors sometimes alter our moods?
  A) Because sensory input from olfaction is routed through the limbic system.
  B) Because odors act as neurotransmitters and alter brain chemistry.
  C) Because odors are satisfying to our sense of hunger.
  D) Odors do not alter mood.
153) Loss of the sensation of taste is referred to as _____________.
  A) dysosmia
  B) ageusia
  C) hypogeusia
  D) asnosmia
154) The chamber that actually houses the hearing receptors is the __________________.
  A) vestibule
  B) semicircular canal
  C) scala tympani
  D) cochlear duct
155) After the inner ear has detected vibrations caused by sound, how is the energy dissipated?
  A) perilymph inside the scala tympani absorbs the sound wave energy
  B) endolymph inside the cochlear duct absorbs sound wave energy
  C) air inside the middle ear dissipates the forces caused by vibrations.
  D) perilymph inside the scala vestibuli absorbs sound wave energy
156) The organs of static equilibrium are located within the ______________ and employ shifting ___________ to set up nerve impulses.
  A) semicircular canals; gelatinous material
  B) vestibule; otoliths
  C) cochlea; fluid
  D) vestibule; crista ampullaris
157) The inner surface of the eyelids is lined with ______________.
  A) conjunctiva
  B) extrinsic eye muscles
  C) dense connective tissue
  D) lacrimal apparatus
158) The region on the retina that produces the sharpest vision is called the _______________.
  A) sclera
  B) aqueous humor
  C) fovea centralis
  D) optic disk
159) Objects are perceived by photoreceptors because the rods or cones _______________ as their _________________ in the presence of light.
  A) depolarize; pigments are manufactured
  B) hyperpolarize; pigments decompose
  C) repolarize; pigments remain unchanged
  D) depolarize; pigments decompose
160) The ability to sense body position is related to _____ receptors.
  A) general
  B) pain
  C) pressure
  D) proprioceptors
161) The area of the brain that integrates proprioceptor data is the _________.
  A) cerebrum
  B) hypothalamus
  C) cerebellum
  D) medulla oblongata
162) Most olfactory receptors are located on the ______ surface of the nasal cavity.
  A) superior
  B) inferior
  C) lateral
  D) medial
163) Which muscle moves the eye toward the midline?
  A) superior oblique
  B) inferior oblique
  C) medial rectus
  D) lateral rectus
164) Which extrinsic eye muscle rotates the eyes clockwise?
  A) inferior oblique
  B) superior oblique
  C) lateral rectus
  D) medial rectus
165) Which cranial nerve does not innervate eye muscles?
  A) III
  B) trochlear
  C) abducens
  D) II
166) The _____ is a membrane covering the anterior portion of the eyeball except for the cornea.
  A) cornea
  B) conjunctiva
  C) sclera
  D) eyelid
167) Which of these is the last in the tear flow sequence?
  A) lacrimal duct
  B) nasolacrimal duct
  C) lacrimal gland
  D) lacrimal sac
168) The actual receptors for hearing and balance are _______.
  A) chemoreceptors
  B) otoliths
  C) cochlear cells
  D) hair cells
169) The auditory canal is part of the _____.
  A) inner ear
  B) middle ear
  C) outer ear
  D) pinna
170) Which is the last structure to vibrate in this sequence?
  A) malleus
  B) oval window
  C) stapes
  D) incus


171) The right occipital lobe receives information from the right eye only.
  A) True
  B) False
172) Proprioceptors respond to changes in muscle positions.
  A) True
  B) False
173) As one ages, one develops an increased tendency towards anosmia.
  A) True
  B) False
174) Gustatory refers to the sensation of smells.
  A) True
  B) False
175) Taste cells are continually reproduced and do not diminish much with age.
  A) True
  B) False
176) Sweet stimuli are usually organic compounds.
  A) True
  B) False
177) The external auditory meatus leads into the inner ear.
  A) True
  B) False
178) The ear wax cerumen contains compounds that repel insects.
  A) True
  B) False
179) The ossicles are the malleus, incus and cochlea.
  A) True
  B) False
180) The difference in sound pressure at the tympanic membrane is about 22 times greater than at the inner ear.
  A) True
  B) False
181) The stapedius muscle inserts on the tympanic membrane.
  A) True
  B) False
182) It is easier to dampen the intensity of slow occurring sounds than rapid.
  A) True
  B) False
183) The mucous lining of the middle ear actually increases the probability of developing otitis media from an external cause.
  A) True
  B) False
184) The round window equalizes pressure between the middle ear and inner ear.
  A) True
  B) False
185) The detection of various frequencies of sound is made possible by the structure of the hair cells.
  A) True
  B) False
186) Human hearing responds to 20-20,000hz equally in all ranges.
  A) True
  B) False
187) The Rinne test is done to assess skin sensitivity to touch.
  A) True
  B) False
188) A sense of moving or dynamic equilibrium is sensed by the ampullae of the vestibule.
  A) True
  B) False
189) The fluid movement in the inner ear can cause a confusion between sounds and movements resulting in motion sickness.
  A) True
  B) False
190) Tears contain a lysozyme enzyme that has antibacterial effects.
  A) True
  B) False
191) Seeing two overlapping images or double vision is termed strabismus.
  A) True
  B) False
192) The most common form of blindness is retinitis or retinal damage.
  A) True
  B) False
193) The ciliary body is a smooth muscle as well as gland.
  A) True
  B) False
194) Vitreous fluid is made continually while aqueous humor remains the same throughout life.
  A) True
  B) False
195) Both pupil dilation and contraction involve muscle contractions.
  A) True
  B) False
196) The cones are sensitive to dim light and color.
  A) True
  B) False

197) The cerebral cortex functions in sensation and the perception of those sensations.
  A) True
  B) False
198) Sensory receptors are equally and proportionally distributed throughout the skin.
  A) True
  B) False
199) Taste and smell are sensations stimulated by chemical molecules.
  A) True
  B) False
200) The papillae on the tongue respond to sweet, sour, salt and bitter stimuli.
  A) True
  B) False
201) The olfactory cells have microvilli that enable them to respond to chemical stimuli.
  A) True
  B) False
202) The taste buds on the tongue enable a person to perceive the taste of various foods such as the garlic in lasagna.
  A) True
  B) False
203) Free nerve endings in the skin are associated with the sensation of pain.
  A) True
  B) False


204) Bipolar neurons associated with sensory receptors are found in the
taste buds
inner ear
finger tips

205) Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?

206) The olfactory receptors are examples of

207) The external auditory meatus passes through the
occipital bone
cribriform plate of the ethmoid
temporal bone
nasal cavities

208) Which of the following helps maintain proper air pressure in the middle ear?
stapedius muscle
Eustachian tube
external auditory meatus
osseous labyrinth

209) Endolymph is found within the
scala vestibuli
scala tympani
cochlear duct

210) Which of the following generates a receptor potential in hair cells?
contact with the basilar membrane
movement of perilymph
bending of stereocilia
breakdown of photopsin

211) The round window connects to the
scala tympani
scala vestibuli
basilar membrane

212) Nerve fibers that synapse with hair cells in the organ of Corti unite to form part of the _____ nerve

213) Which of the following represents the correct pathway leading to the perception of sound?
tympanic membrane, ossicles, endolymph, perilymph, hair cells
tympanic membrane, ossicles, perilymph, endolymph, hair cells
ossicles, tympanic membrane, endolymph, perilymph, hair cells
ossicles, perilymph, tympanic membrane, endolymph, hair cells

214) Which of the following is associated with equilibrium?
vestibular membrane
basilar membrane
otolithic membrane
ciliary processes

215) Otoliths are
hair cells
taste cells
bipolar neurons

216) Which of the following is part of the vascular tunic of the eye?

217) When entering a dark room on a sunny day, it takes some time to be able to see because
it takes time for the retina to rebuild its rhodopsin
the rods of the eye work only in bright light, and it takes time for the cones to develop an action potential in dim light
the iris dilates very slowly after being subjected to bright light
the optic nerve fatigues in bright light, and takes time to recover

218) Each crista in the semicircular ducts is covered by a gelatinous material called the

219) The anterior cavity contains
the vitreous body
aqueous humor

220) The point of greatest visual acuity is the
optic disk
optic chiasm
central fovea

221) Intraocular pressure is primarily due to the
aqueous humor
vitreous body

222) As they extend from the retina to the brain, nerve fibers
from the nasal half of each retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex
from the temporal half of each retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex
from both nasal and temporal portions of the retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex
travel straight from each retina to the visual cortex, without crossing or synapsing

223) Which cranial nerve carries visual impulses to the brain?

224) Aqueous humor drains from the anterior chamber into the
vitreous body
lacrimal duct
ciliary processes
canal of Schlemm

225) Sound waves are translated into nerve impulses in the
middle ear

226) A reflex reaction to loud sounds prevents damage to the inner ear. This reaction is due to contraction of
hair cells
tensor tympani & stapedius muscles
the Eustachian tube
the pinna, allowing it to fold over the external auditory meatus

227) The oval window connects to the
Eustachian tube
basilar membrane

228) As a result of an injury, a person cannot see at all with the left eye, but has no trouble seeing with the right eye. The injury has probably severed the
optic chiasm
left optic tract
left optic nerve
right optic nerve

229) Pitch is
the frequency of a sound vibration
the loudness of a sound
the angle light travels through the lens to reach the fovea centralis
measured in decibels

230) The blind spot is the area where
there are more rods than cones
there are more cones than rods
the optic nerve exits the eye
the iris attaches to the cornea

231) Perilymph fills the
anterior cavity
bony labyrinth
membranous labyrinth
rods and cones

232) Sensory stimulation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is conducted by the
hypoglossal nerve
glossopharyngeal nerve
vagus nerve
trigeminal nerve

233) A sty is caused by
infection of the sebaceous ciliary glands
paralyzing the levator palpebrae superioris muscle
damage to the ceruminous glands
infection of the Meibomian glands

234) Which of the following conditions is not related to lens pathology?

235) In humans, both eyes focus on only one set of objects. This is called
binocular vision

236) Circumvallate papillae are located on the
posterior region of the tongue
sides of the tongue
tip of the tongue
soft palate and pharynx

237) The fibrous tunic is composed of the
sclera and cornea
choroids, ciliary body, and iris
optic nerve

238) The white of the eye, which gives shape to the eyeball, makes it more rigid, and protects its inner parts is the

239) Most of the refraction of light entering the eye occurs at the

240) During accommodation for near vision
the cornea becomes more curved
the iris dilates and lets in more light
the lens increases in curvature
the eyeball shortens to bring the image in focus

241) Constriction of the pupil is brought about by contraction of the
ciliary muscle
circular muscle of the iris
extrinsic muscles of the eye

242) Photopigment in the rods and cones is imbedded in the
Golgi complex
synapse region between these cells and the horizontal cells
membrane folds of the outer segment of these cells

243) The most common type of color blindness is
red-blue color blindness
red-green color blindness
blue-green color blindness
total color blindness

244) In daylight, rods contribute little to vision because
they become totally depolarized
the mitochondria cannot generate enough energy
the rhodopsin is bleached as fast as it is regenerated
the outer segments lose their photopigments

245) When light hits the rods
Na+ channels close and less inhibitory neurotransmitter is released
the outer segment depolarizes and initiates a nerve impulse
they inhibit the activity of bipolar cells
more photopigment is manufactured

246) The neural receptors for the sense of hearing are located in the
outer ear
middle ear
inner ear

247) High intensity (loud) sounds can cause deafness because they are most damaging to the
hair cells of the spiral organ of Corti
secondary tympanic membrane
bones of the middle ear
tympanic membrane

248) Meniere's syndrome is caused by
bacterial infection of the middle ear
increased number of blood vessels growing over the ear drum
increased amount of endolymph that enlarges the membranous labyrinth
excessive stimulation of the vestibular apparatus by motion