Reproductive System
Answers are provided below each question

1. The human ovum and spermatozoon are similar in that:

A. about the same number of each is produced each month
B. they have the same degree of motility
C. they are about the same size
D. they have the same number of chromosomes
E. none of the above.

2. Spermiogenesis involves:

A. the formation of spermatozoa from spermatogonia
B. the movement of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract
C. the formation of primordial or primitive reproductive cells in the yolk sac membrane
D. the transformation of spermatids into spermatozoa
E. the movement of spermatozoa from the epididymis into the ejaculatory duct.

3. During early and middle fetal life, the testes are located in the:

A. inguinal canal
B. abdominal cavity
C. pelvic cavity
D. scrotal

4. Inflammation of the seminiferous tubules could interfere with the ability to:

A. make semen alkaline
B. secrete testosterone
C. produce spermatozoa
D. eliminate urine from the bladder
E. all of the preceding.

5. The mitochondria in mature sperm cells are located in the:

A. head of the sperm
B. body (middle piece) of the sperm
C. acrosome of the sperm
D. tail (flagellum) of the sperm
E. mature sperm do not have mitochondria.

6. The movement of spermatozoa, from the epididymal duct, and seminal fluid into the ejaculatory duct and the urethra is called and is under control.

A. ejaculation / parasympathetic
B. emigration / parasympathetic
C. erection / parasympathetic
D. emission / sympathetic

7. Prostaglandins within the seminal fluid are thought to:

A. cause ovulation
B. decrease sperm motility
C. stimulate muscular contractions within the uterus
D. stimulate the vestibular (Bartholin's) glands to produce mucus

8. Which of the following is not paired in the male?

A. epididymis
B. ejaculatory duct
C. urethra
D. ductus deferens (vas deferens)
E. all the preceding structures are paired in the male.

9. At birth, the ovaries of a newborn girl contain about _____ gamete-producing cells called _____

A. 10 million / oogonia
B. 2 million / primary oocytes
C. 400,000 / primary oocytes
D. 40,000 / Sertoli cells
E. 50 million / primary follicles.

MATCHING: Match the following cell types with the corresponding chromosome complement. That is, is the cell haploid or diploid? (NOTE; If the cell is haploid use an "A", if diploid use a "B".)

10. Spermatozoon.
11. Secondary spermatocyte
12. Spermatogonium
13. Spermatid
14. Primary spermatocyte
15. Secondary oocyte
16. Second polar body
17. First polar body
18. Primary oocyte

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

19. The onset of menstruation at puberty is referred to as:

A. menopause
B. menorhagia
C. menarche
D. amenorrhea
E. dysmenorrhea.

20. During the ovarian cycle, ovulation occurs

A. during the period of menstrual flow
B. during sexual intercourse
C. when estrogen levels are very low
D. when the corpus luteum degenerates
E. during the surge in LH and FSH concentration.

21. In the menstrual cycle, the menstrual phase or menses, usually occurs between day ____ and day ____ of the cycle.

A.(25 and 28)
B.(1 and 5)
C. (13 and l5)
D. (20 and 25)

22. The secretory phase of the endometrium corresponds to which of the following ovarian phases?

A. follicular phase
B. ovulation
C. luteal phase
D. menstrual phase.

23. Which of the following is shed as menses?

A. the perimetrial layer
B. the fibrous layer
C. the functional layer
D. the basal layer
E. the myometrial layer.

24. The dominant hormone controlling the proliferative phase of the uterine endometrium is:

A. estrogen
D. progesterone
E. hCG

25. A woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle is most likely to become pregnant as a result of sexual intercourse on days:

A. 1 - 3
B. 5-8
C. 12-15
D. 22-24
E. 24-28.

26. A polar body is formed:

A. before fertilization
B. after fertilization
C. answers A and B.

27. The cervix is a portion of the:

A. vulva
B. vagina
C. uterus
D. uterine (fallopian) tubes.

28. The female structures that correspond (are homologous) to the scrotum of the male are the:

A. labia minora
B. labia majora
C. clitoris
D. urethral folds
E. answers A and C.

MATCHING. (Note: Items A through C may be used more than once.)

A. Testes
B. ovaries
C. uterus

29. Ovariectomy
30. Hysterectomy
31. Oophorectomy
32. Orchiectomy (Orchidectomy)

A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would: (NOTE: For a yes answer use an "A", for a no answer, use a "B")

33. Develop secondary sex characters
34. Be sterile
35. Have improper functioning of the testicular interstitial cells.


  1. The main hormone released by the corpus luteum is ______________.

  2. The hormone that acts on Leydig cells is __________________.

  3. _________________ is the main hormone produced by granulosa cells.

  4. True or False: The cremaster muscles actively regulate the number of sperm made on a daily basis.

  5. Human egg and sperm are similar in that:
    1. About the same number are produced per month
    2. They have the same degree of motility
    3. They have the same number of chromosomes
    4. They are about the same size

  6. The testosterone-producing cells of the testes are called:
    1. Sertoli cells
    2. Granulosa cells
    3. Spermatogonia
    4. Leydig cells

  7. The testicular cells most involved with the construction of the blood-testes barrier are the:
    1. Sertoli cells
    2. Granulosa cells
    3. Spermatogonia
    4. Leydig cells

  8. The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the ____________________.

  9. The anterior pituitary hormone that triggers ovulation is:

  10. The external sac enclosing the testes is the ___________________.

  11. ___________ is the release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary.

  12. The corpora cavernosa are(n):

  13. The female homologue of the scrotum is the ________________.

  14. Ejaculation is a _______________ response whereas erection is a ______________ response.


  15. An oocyte surrounded by one layer of squamous follicle-like cells is most likely a:
    1. Primordial follicle
    2. Primary follicle
    3. Secondary follicle
    4. Graafian follicle

  16. An antrum is characteristic of _____________ follicles.
    1. Secondary
    2. Graafian
    3. Primary
    4. Primary, secondary, and Graafian
    5. Secondary and Graafian

  17. The rounded region of the uterus superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes is the:
    1. Ampulla
    2. Fundus
    3. Corpus
    4. Isthmus
    5. Superior flexure

  18. Primary oocytes are:
    1. Haploid
    2. Diploid
    3. Polyploid
    4. Aneuploid

  19. Consider the following 3 tubes. Which is the correct order sperm travels through them.
    1. Epididymis
    2. Oviduct
    3. Ejaculatory Duct
    1. 1,3,2
    2. 3,1,2
    3. 2,1,3
    4. 2,3,1


  21. During menstruation, the stratum _____________ is sloughed off.

  22. True or False: Days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle is the proliferative phase.

  24. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone which negatively feeds back and inhibits the release of:
    1. ABP and ICSH
    2. LH and ICSH
    3. LH and FSH
    4. FSH and TSH

  25. Which of the following is correct relative to the female anatomy?
    1. The vaginal orifice is the most dorsal of the 3 openings in the perineum
    2. The urethra is between the vaginal orifice and the anus
    3. The anus is between vaginal orifice and the urethra
    4. The urethra is the more ventral of the 2 openings in the vulva

  26. Sertoli cells produce:
    1. Mucus
    2. Androgen-binding protein
    3. Testosterone
    4. FSH
    5. FSH

  27. Spermatogenesis BEGINS in the:
    1. Epididymis
    2. Uterine horn
    3. Rete testes
    4. Seminiferous tubules
    5. Seminal vesicles

  28. The site of oogenesis is the:
    1. Ovary
    2. Ovum
    3. Oocyte
    4. Oviduct
    5. Ovarian lacunae

  29. In the 1st phase of the menstrual cycle:
    1. Oogonia differentiate into primary oocytes
    2. About 20 secondary oocytes begin to enlarge
    3. The Graafian follicle ruptures
    4. The dominant follicle is opsonized

  30. During ovulation, all of the following occur EXCEPT:
    1. Rupture of the Graafian follicle
    2. Estrogen production reaches its nadir
    3. FSH and LH production become very high
    4. Corpus luteum is formed

  31.  Sertoli cells produce:
         a. mucus
         b. androgen-binding protein (ABP)
         c. testosterone
         d. FSH and LH
  32.  The site of oogenesis is the:
         a. ovary
         b. ovum
         c. fallopian tube
         d. uterus
  33.  In the first phase of the menstrual cycle:
         a. oogonia differentiate into primary oocytes
         b. about 20 secondary oocytes begin to enlarge
         c. the Graafian follicle ruptures
         d. the dominant follicle gobbles up all other oocytes
  34.  During ovulation all of the following occur EXCEPT:
         a. rupture of the Graafian follicle
         b. estrogen production is very low
         c. FSH and LH production is high
         d. formation of the corpus luteum
68) The primary sex organ in the male is the _____.
  A) penis
  B) testis
  C) scrotum
  D) epididymis
69) Where do the testes originate in a fetus?
  A) scrotal sac
  B) pelvic cavity
  C) abdominal cavity
  D) retroperitoneal space
70) When do the testes begin to descend?
  A) at birth
  B) two months after birth
  C) two months prior to birth
  D) in the fifth month of pregnancy
71) Spermatogenesis is a function of the _____.
  A) tunica albuginea
  B) rete testis
  C) seminiferous tubule
  D) seminal vesicle
72) What is the source of the male sex hormones?
  A) epididymis
  B) vas deferens
  C) seminiferous tubules
  D) interstitial cells
73) Where do sperm cells attain fertilization competence and motility?
  A) rete testis
  B) epididymis
  C) vas deferens
  D) seminiferous tubule
74) Which structure contains lysosomal-like enzymes?
  A) Sertoli cells
  B) sperm head
  C) acrosome
  D) sperm tail
75) Where does the epididymis direct sperm cells into?
  A) vas efferens
  B) vas deferens
  C) rete testis
  D) prostate gland
76) The end of the vas deferens is a dilated sac called the _____.
  A) ductus deferens
  B) seminal vesicle
  C) ampulla
  D) ejaculatory duct
77) The ejaculatory duct is the union of the vas deferens and _____.
  A) seminal vesicle
  B) prostate
  C) ampulla
  D) urethra
78) The substrate used for sperm metabolism is produced by the _____.
  A) prostate
  B) seminal vesicle
  C) Cowper's gland
  D) testes
79) The main function of the prostate seems to be _____.
  A) spermatogenesis
  B) production of glycogen
  C) secretion of alkaline mucus
  D) maturation of sperm cells
80) Infertility could develop when the sperm cells display _____.
  A) a count of 120 million per ml semen
  B) increased acrosomal activity
  C) normal morphology
  D) a count of less than 20 million per ml semen
81) The process of capacitation usually occurs in the _____.
  A) vagina
  B) testis
  C) prostate
  D) epididymis
82) Which term includes the other terms?
  A) spermatozoa
  B) alkaline mucus
  C) semen
  D) fructose
83) The urethra passes through the _____ of the penis.
  A) tunica albuginea
  B) prepuce
  C) corpora spongiosum
  D) corpora cavernosa
84) Which of the following is not compatible with penile erection?
  A) parasympathetic stimulation
  B) arterial dilation
  C) venous compression
  D) blood leaves erectile tissue
85) Which hormone initiates the changes in puberty?
  A) FSH
  C) testosterone
  D) GnRH
86) The target of FSH is the _____.
  A) prostate
  B) seminiferous tubule
  C) pituitary
  D) penis
87) The target of ICSH is the _____.
  A) prostate
  B) seminiferous tubule
  C) interstitial cells
  D) seminal vesicle
88) Testosterone is converted to _____ in the prostate.
  A) cholesterol
  B) estrogen
  C) progesterone
  D) dihydrotestosterone
89) Which of these is not a function of testosterone?
  A) loss of body hair
  B) thickening of the larynx
  C) anabolism of skeletal muscle
  D) thickening of bones
90) What normally inhibits testosterone production?
  A) increasing FSH
  B) increasing ICSH
  C) decreasing ICSH
  D) decreasing FSH
91) How many oocytes are there in the ovaries of an adult?
  A) fewer than 400
  B) 10 million
  C) 50 million
  D) 400,000
92) Which cell has been fertilized by a sperm cell?
  A) primary oocyte
  B) secondary oocyte
  C) ovum
  D) oogonia
93) A cell called the ______ is a fertilized cell with 46 chromosomes.
  A) spermatozoon
  B) polar body
  C) ovum
  D) zygote
94) The result of oogenesis is _____.
  A) one secondary oocyte
  B) two secondary oocytes
  C) one ovum
  D) four ootids
95) The initiation of puberty and menses in a female involves increased levels of _____.
  A) FSH
  B) LH
  C) estrogen
  D) progesterone
96) The outside layer of the oocyte is the _____.
  A) theca interna
  B) theca externa
  C) zona pellucida
  D) antrum
97) The mature follicle is also called a _____.
  A) Graafian follicle
  B) granulosa cell
  C) primary follicle
  D) secondary follicle
98) When do the corona radiata cells appear?
  A) at birth
  B) 12 days
  C) 28 days
  D) 1 day
99) During ovulation, the oocyte passes into the _____.
  A) uterine tube
  B) uterus
  C) pelvic cavity
  D) ovary
100) What is the first structure to receive the oocyte?
  A) fimbriae
  B) uterine tube
  C) infundibulum
  D) uterus
101) The largest component of the uterus by weight is the _____.
  A) broad ligament
  B) myometrium
  C) round ligament
  D) endometrium
102) The superior portion of the uterus is the _____.
  A) body
  B) cervix
  C) fundus
  D) infundibulum
103) The outer serosal layer of the uterus is the _____.
  A) perimetrium
  B) cervix
  C) endometrium
  D) myometrium
104) The superior region of the vagina is the _____.
  A) vaginal orifice
  B) cervix
  C) hymen
  D) vaginal rugae
105) The inner lining of the vagina is _____ epithelium.
  A) simple cuboidal
  B) simple columnar
  C) mucous
  D) stratified squamous
106) Which of these includes the other terms?
  A) labia
  B) clitoris
  C) vulva
  D) vestibular glands
107) What structure corresponds to the scrotum in the male?
  A) labia major
  B) labia minor
  C) pudendal cleft
  D) mons pubis
108) The _____ is the space between the labia minor.
  A) vulva
  B) vestibule
  C) vaginal orifice
  D) pudendal cleft
109) Which of the following are not parts of the clitoris?
  A) corpora cavernosa
  B) crura
  C) glans
  D) corpus spongiosum
110) The female Bartholin glands correspond to the male _____.
  A) prostate
  B) Cowper's
  C) seminal vesicle
  D) glans
111) Which of the following is a steroid?
  A) FSH
  B) LH
  C) estrogen
  D) GnRH
112) Which hormone stimulates the secondary female sex organs?
  A) FSH
  B) LH
  C) GnRH
  D) estrogen
113) Which of these is not a function of estrogen?
  A) decreases adipose
  B) breast development
  C) increased skin blood vessels
  D) enlarges clitoris
114) What area experiences the greatest changes in a menstrual cycle?
  A) vagina
  B) perimetrium
  C) cervix
  D) endometrium
115) Which of the following is not a source of estrogen?
  A) adrenal gland
  B) ovary
  C) pituitary
  D) follicle
116) Which factor causes the act of ovulation?
  A) blood pressure
  B) LH levels
  C) FSH levels
  D) estrogen
117) Where is the majority of progesterone produced?
  A) Graafian follicle
  B) corpus luteum
  C) secondary follicle
  D) adrenal cortex
118) Which hormone is produced throughout a menstrual cycle?
  A) FSH
  B) estrogen
  C) LH
  D) progesterone
119) Which factor will inhibit the secretion of estrogens?
  A) FSH
  B) LH
  C) estrogens
  D) progesterone
120) What factor will inhibit LH secretion?
  A) FSH
  B) progesterone
  C) estrogen
  D) LH
121) Which of the following is the most accurate sequence of hormones?
  A) FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone
  B) LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone
  C) FSH, estrogen, LH, progesterone
  D) FSH, estrogen, progesterone, LH
122) Which hormone thickens the lining of the uterus?
  A) FSH
  B) estrogen
  C) LH
  D) progesterone
123) Which hormone causes the uterus to increase glycogen?
  A) progesterone
  B) FSH
  C) LH
  D) estrogen
124) The shedding and bleeding of the decidua during menses is directly caused by low levels of _____.
  A) FSH
  B) LH
  C) sex steroids
  D) GnRH
125) Which of the following is not a result of menopause?
  A) loss of hormones
  B) reduction in breast mass
  C) increase in calcium deposition
  D) psychological changes
126) Specifically, where are sperm cells formed within the testes?
  A) within the tunica albuginea
  B) within the mediastinum testes
  C) within the seminiferous tubules
  D) in association with interstitial cells
127) During spermatogenesis, which stage is the first to be haploid in number of chromosomes?
  A) spermatogonium
  B) primary spermatocyte
  C) secondary spermatocyte
  D) spermatid
128) What portion of the sperm cell contains the twenty-three chromosomes?
  A) head
  B) acrosome
  C) midpiece
  D) tail
129) Males have a number of internal accessory organs. Which one(s) is/are responsible for secreting fluid containing fructose and prostaglandins?
  A) epididymis
  B) seminal vesicles
  C) vas deferens
  D) prostate gland
130) Which male accessory gland lies inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra like a donut?
  A) epididymis
  B) bulbourethral glands
  C) vas deferens
  D) prostate gland
131) A number of hormonal secretions begin or increase during puberty. Which hormone appears to initiate the process of puberty?
  A) testosterone
  B) luteininzing hormone (LH or ICSH)
  C) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  D) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
132) Within the female ovary, primordial follicles begin their development ________________.
  A) at puberty
  B) around age 5
  C) at birth
  D) during prenatal development
133 What is the purpose of polar bodies during oogenesis?
  A) Polar bodies serve both as a dumping ground for extra sets of chromosomes and ensure that the ovum will have most of the cytoplasm.
  B) They rid the body of defective sets of chromosomes, leaving the "good" set within the ovum.
  C) They are merely the by-product of meiosis and serve no function.
  D) They prevent the development of most sets of multiple births.
134) During ovulation, a(n) _____________ is released from the ovary.
  A) ovum
  B) secondary oocyte
  C) primary oocyte
  D) oogonium
135) Which layer of the uterus is shed once monthly during menstruation?
  A) the myometrium
  B) the perimetrium
  C) the endometrium
  D) the exometrium
136) Ovulation appears to be triggered by a midcycle surge in ______________.
  A) estrogen
  B) progesterone
  C) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  D) luteinizing hormone (LH)
137) Choosing from the following list, the most effective means of preventing conception is _____________.
  A) coitus interruptus
  B) rhythm method
  C) condoms
  D) tubal ligation
138) Which sexually transmitted disease is also associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility in females?
  A) genital herpes
  B) chlamydia infection
  C) genital warts
  D) syphilis
139) What is the term for the primary human sex organs?
  A) gonads
  B) genitals
  C) ova
  D) gametes
140) The _____ can be considered an extension of the abdominopeluic wall.
  A) seminal vesicle
  B) testes
  C) scrotum
  D) penis
141) Which factor favors spermatozoa development?
  A) temperature of 37C
  B) temperature of 34C
  C) acidity
  D) estrogens
142) Which cells are the earliest in the male sequence of sperm production?
  A) spermatozoa
  B) spermatocyte
  C) spermatid
  D) spermatogonia
143) Which gland lies at the inferior base of the urinary bladder?
  A) seminal vesicle
  B) prostate
  C) Cowper's gland
  D) testis
144) Which sperm structure contains enzymes that help penetrate ova?
  A) head
  B) tail
  C) acrosome
  D) middle piece
145) What is the source of the male androgen testosterone?
  A) seminiferous tubule
  B) interstitial cells
  C) epididymis
  D) prostate
146) Which structure is not found within the spermatic cord?
  A) urethra
  B) blood vessel
  C) nerve
  D) smooth muscle
147) How many mature, functional follicles will a female produce in a lifetime?
  A) about 1 million
  B) 400
  C) 4,000
  D) 350,000
148) Which structure is formed following ovulation?
  A) Graafian follicle
  B) secondary oocyte
  C) corpus luteum
  D) coronal radiata
149) What is the source of female sex steroids?
  A) pituitary
  B) ovary
  C) uterus
  D) hypothalamus


150) For most women who decide to breast feed, it will be easier to become pregnant during the first month after delivery than it will be one year later.
  A) True
  B) False
151) Spermicidal foams and creams are an effective means of contraception.
  A) True
  B) False
152) A vasectomy is the male equivalent of tubal ligation regarding efficacy of contraception.
  A) True
  B) False
153) Oral contraceptives usually contain doses of estrogen and progesterone and act by inhibiting FSH and LH.
  A) True
  B) False
154) Hysterectomy involves removal of the uterus and uterine tubes, therapeutically.
  A) True
  B) False
155) Hyperemesis gravidarum is excessive vomiting during pregnancy.
  A) True
  B) False
156) An inguinal hernia occurs when the testes is pushed into the inguinal canal and enters the pelvic cavity.
  A) True
  B) False
157) Semen contains chemicals that cause female smooth muscle to contract.
  A) True
  B) False
158) Testosterone injections are used to treat prostate cancer.
  A) True
  B) False
159) Sperm cells die immediately when they are released from the body and are placed in a petri plate.
  A) True
  B) False
160) The dartos muscle assists sperm development by helping maintain a testes temperature close to 98.6 F.
  A) True
  B) False
161) The crura of the corpora cavernosa attach the penis to the bones of the pubic arch.
  A) True
  B) False
162) Emission is the release of semen from the body during the process of orgasm.
  A) True
  B) False
163) Testosterone increases the number of red blood cells.
  A) True
  B) False
164) The ovarian medulla contains cells that will differentiate into the oocytes.
  A) True
  B) False
165) The outer layer of an ovary is similar to the tunica albuginea outer testis layer.
  A) True
  B) False
166) Females produce hundreds of oocytes each month in comparison to the millions of sperm cells produced in the same age male.
  A) True
  B) False
167) Ciliated epithelium and peristaltic waves help move the oocyte through the Fallopian tubes.
  A) True
  B) False
168) The vagina is anterior to the bladder and posterior to the rectum.
  A) True
  B) False
169) All of the muscle associated with the vagina is involuntary and smooth.
  A) True
  B) False
170) During orgasm, the muscle of the uterus and uterine tubes undergo rhythmic contractions.
  A) True
  B) False
171) Female athletes usually experience menstrual cycles with excessive loss of blood.
  A) True
  B) False
172) The first female menstrual cycle is called thelarche.
  A) True
  B) False
173) The hormone inhibin acts to decrease the production of FSH.
  A) True
  B) False
174) The cortical granules of the ovum membrane cause the increase in sperm acrosomal activity and penetration.
  A) True
  B) False
175) Cleavage is an early process of division that causes an increase in the size of the embryo.
  A) True
  B) False
176) Endometriosis is the increase in uterine tissue which causes excessive bleeding and possible infertility.
  A) True
  B) False
177) Estrogen stimulates fat deposition and duct development in the breasts.
  A) True
  B) False
178) A mammogram can be used to screen for but not diagnose breast cancer.
  A) True
  B) False
179) The testes in the male and ovaries in the female can both be found in the pelvic cavity of an early fetus.
  A) True
  B) False
180) Meiosis is defined as the process by which sperm cells give rise to four daughter cells each.
  A) True
  B) False
181) The epididymis is a coiled tubule in the testes that stores sperm cells.
  A) True
  B) False
182) The vas deferens connects to the urethra at the base of the penis.
  A) True
  B) False
183) The ovarian follicle cells will develop into the oocytes each month.
  A) True
  B) False
184) In a pregnancy, the corpus luteum will last from 3 to 6 months.
  A) True
  B) False