STUDY QUESTIONS
Nerve Tissue
Answers are provided below each question

1. When the membrane potential (i.e. -70 mV) becomes less negative or in other words, approaches zero, the membrane is said to be:

A. polarizing
B. hyperpolarizing
C. prepolarizing
D. autopolarizing
E. depolarizing.

2. An all-or-none nerve fiber impulse, may be triggered by:

A. a weak below threshold stimulus
B. a weak but threshold stimulus
C. a strong well-above threshold stimulus
D. either, A or B
E. either, B or C.

3. Resting membrane potential, is defined as:

A. The movement of sodium ions outside the membrane and the movement of potassium ions inside the membrane
B. the difference in electrical charges between the inside and outside of a resting nerve membrane
C. the movement of action potentials along a resting axon
D. the movement of ions along the external surface of a resting membrane.

4. During an infection of the CNS, you might expect to find an increase in:

A.Schwann cells
B. microglia
C. astrocytes
D. oligodendrocytes
E. ependymal cells.

5. Bipolar neurons are located in the:

A. olfactory mucosa
B. retina of the eye
C. inner ear
D. all of the preceding
E. answers A and B only.

6. The two principal divisions of the nervous system are the:

A. afferent nervous system and the efferent nervous system
B. autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system
C. parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
D. saltatory conduction and continuous conduction systems
E. peripheral nervous system and central nervous system

7. Repolarization of an axon during an action potential is produced by:

A. inward diffusion of sodium ions
B. extrusion of potassium from the cell by active transport
C. outward diffusion of potassium ions
D. inward diffusion of calcium ions
E. none of the above

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
    1. Peripheral nerve is similar to smooth muscle in terms of the connective tissue investment
    2. Most nerves contain afferent and efferent fibers and thus carry both motor and sensory signals
    3. Nodes of Ranvier are most easily seen in cross-section of peripheral nerve
    4. None of the above
  2. Which of the following cells is reponsible for myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system?
    1. Astrocyte
    2. Oligodendrocyte
    3. Schwann cell
    4. Microglial cell
    5. Satellite cell
  3. The perineurium is the connective tissue layer:
    1. Surrounding an entire nerve
    2. Surrounding individual axons in the CNS
    3. Surrounding individual axons in the PNS
    4. Surrounding fascicles of axons in the CNS
    5. Surrounding fascicles of axons in the PNS
  4. The peripheral nervous system includes the:
    1. Somatic nervous system
    2. Brain
    3. Spinal cord
    4. Nuclei
  5. The system that controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland activity is the:
    1. Somatic nervous system
    2. Autonomic nervous system
    3. Skeletal division
    4. Sensory nervous system
  6. A neuron with many short dendrites and a single long axon is a:
    1. Multipolar neuron
    2. Bipolar neuron
    3. Unipolar neuron
    4. None of the above
  7. Most sensory neurons are _____________________ neurons.
    1. Unipolar
    2. Bipolar
    3. Multipolar
    4. Efferent
    5. A and b
    6. A and c
    7. B and c
  8. Cells found in the choroid plexus that secrete cerebrospinal fluid are:
    1. Astrocytes
    2. Microglia
    3. Ependymal cells
    4. Oligodendrocytes
    5. Schwann cells
  9. The most likely type of fiber that would carry the impulse for a withdrawal reflex would be a(n):
    1. A fiber because they carry the strongest action potentials
    2. A fiber because they carry APs the fastest
    3. B fiber because they carry APs the fastest
    4. C fiber because they carry the strongest APs
  10. Axons within nerves may have which of the following associated with them?
    1. Schwann cells
    2. Nodes of Ranvier
    3. Oligodendrocytes
    4. A and b
    5. All of the above
  11. Action potentials are conducted more rapidly in:
    1. Small diameter axons than large diameter axons
    2. Large diameter axons than small diameter axons
    3. Unmyelinated axons than myelinated axons
    4. Axons that lack a wrapping of Schwann cells
  12. Clusters of nerve cell bodies within the PNS are called ____________________.
  13. Gray matter contains primarily:
    1. Myelinated fibers
    2. Neuron cell bodies
    3. Schwann cells
    4. All of the above
  14. Arrange the following connective tissue structures from the outermost to the innermost.
    1. Endoneurium
    2. Epineurium
    3. Perineurium
  15. Neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles that are located primarily in specialized portions of the:
    1. Soma
    2. Axon
    3. Dendrite
    4. Perikaryon
  16. An inhibitory neuron could affect the neuron with which it synapses by:
    1. Producing an IPSP within the neuron
    2. Hyperpolarizing the neuron
    3. Increasing K+ efflux from the neuron
    4. Increasing Cl- influx into the neuron
    5. All of the above
    6. 2 of the above

  17. Summation:
    1. Is caused by a combining of several local potentials
    2. Can occur when 2 action potentials arrive simultaneously at 2 different presynaptic terminals
    3. Can occur when 2 action potentials arrive in very close succession at a single presynaptic terminals
    4. All of the above
  18. Which of the following organelles is responsible for the appearance of Nissl bodies in the cell bodies of motor neurons?
    1. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    2. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    3. Golgi apparatus
    4. Mitochondria
    5. Basal bodies
  19. Which of the following structures is a component of a reflex arc?
    1. Afferent neuron
    2. Efferent neuron
    3. Sensory receptor
    4. Effector organ
    5. All of the above
  20. A convergent circuit:
    1. Is a positive feedback system that produces many action potentials
    2. Is a negative feedback system that produces IPSPs
    3. Occurs when multiple neurons synapse onto few neurons
    4. Cannot be affected by a sodium channel blocker
    5. All of the above
  21. The output of a convergent circuit could be:
    1. An IPSP
    2. An EPSP
    3. An action potential
    4. All of the above
  22. Which of the following is TRUE of the perineurium?
    1. It's a fascia surrounding many bundles of nerve fibers
    2. It's a layer of connective tissue surrounding a singl bundle (fascicle) of nerve fibers
    3. It's a thin layer of reticular fibers covering individual nerve fibers
    4. It's an artery-rich fascia covering the external coat of nerves
  23. Which of the following is TRUE of the sympathetic nervous system?
    1. It's voluntarily controlled via the forebrain
    2. It's voluntarily controlled via the reticular formation
    3. It uses different neurotransmitters at the ganglion and at the synaptic cleft
    4. It's a subdivision of the somatic nervous system
  24. Santiago Ramon y Cajal proposed that neurons were dynamically polarized. By this he meant that excitation only spread in one direction along a neuron. In which part of the neuron did he imagine that the excitation began and in which direction did it spread?
  25. Can neuroglial cells transmit action potentials from one nerve cell to another?
  26. What is the difference between grey and white matter of the CNS?
  27. What are the events whose frequency is being modulated to transmit information through the nervous system?
  28. The brain and the spinal cord comprise the __________ nervous system. All nerves of the body residing outside of the brain and spinal cord comprise the ________ nervous system.
  29. Sensory neurons are _________ neurons while ___________ neurons carry motor impulses. The most common type of neuron is the __________ which communicates from one neuron to another.
  30. The branch of the ANS that induces the "fight or flight" response is the ___________ division.
  31. The cells that support, protect, and nourish the neurons are the __________.
  32. The cell body of a neuron is known as the _________.
  33. Long extensions off neuronal cell bodies that conduct impulses away from the cell body are ___________.
  34. The dark granular substance inside neuronal cell bodies is called __________ and is composed of dense collections of __________ which are the sites of _____________.
  35. ______________ are cells that electrically insulate axons in the CNS. The insulation is composed of _________.
  36. ____________ is a CNS disease where the _________ of motor neurons is degenerating or being destroyed, which interferes with neuronal impulses. This is a progressive disease that causes widespread motor deficits.
  37. _______ cells are specialized epithelial cells in the CNS that produce cerebrospinal fluid.
  1. The brain and spinal cord comprise the _____ nervous system. All nerves of the body residing outside of the brain and spinal cord comprise the _____ nervous system.

     
  2. Sensory neurons are also referred to as _____ neurons while _____ neurons carry motor impulses. The most common type of neuron is the _____ which communicates from one neuron to another.

     
  3. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that induces the "flight or fight" response is the_____.

     
  4. The cells that support, nourish and protect neurons are the _____.

     
  5. The cell body of a neuron is the _____.

     
  6. Long extensions off neuronal cell bodies that conduct impulses away from the cell are _____.

     
  7. The dark granular substance inside neuronal cell bodies are called _____. It is composed of dense collections of _____ where _____ occurs.

     
  8. _____ are cells that electrically insulate neuronal axons in the central nervous system. This electrical insulation is referred to as _____.

     
  9. _____ is a CNS disease where the _____ of motor neurons is degenerating or being destroyed, which interferes with neuronal impulses. This is a progressive disease that causes widespread motor deficits.

     
  10. _____ are specialized epithelial cells in the CNS that produce _____.

     
  11. In general, positively charged ions are termed _____.

     
  12. On the inner cell membrane surface of a resting neuron, there is an accumulation of _____ charge.

     
  13. In electrical terms, "potential" is synonymous with "_____".

     
  14. An "excitable" cell is one that can quickly and dramatically change its resting membrane potential. Two types of examples of excitable cells include _____ and _____ cells.

     
  15. The typical neuronal resting membrane potential measures approximately _____.

     
  16. A neuronal impulse is also referred to as an _____, which indicates that it is a "moving" region of "voltage change" that migrates along the neuronal cell membrane.

     
  17. There is a greater concentration of _____ions accumulating on the outer surface of resting neuronal membranes than on the inner surface.

     
  18. The two ways ions may pass across a membrane involve using _____ channels and _____ channels.

     
  19. The Na/K pump operates by transporting three _____ ions out of the cell while transporting two _____ ions into the cell.

     
  20. _____-gated ion channels open or close only in response to a change in the nearby membrane potential.

     
  21. Neurotransmitters bind to specific _____ on the neuronal cell surface. This binding triggers the opening of ion channels that temporarily change the nearby membrane potential. These small, variable, transient changes in membrane potential are referred to as _____ potentials.

     
  22. When _____ charged ions flow into a neuron, the resting membrane potential becomes less negative.

     
  23. Voltage-gated _____ channels are triggered to open when the resting membrane potential reaches about _____which is referred to as the _____ potential.

     
  24. When enough excitatory stimuli act on a neuronal cell, _____-gated Na+ channels on the axon _____ (or "trigger zone") open. Opening of these channels results in the movement of Na+ _____ the cell which causes the inside charge to become more _____.

     
  25. _____ of Na+ causes _____ of the membrane, which is the first phase of the action potential.

     
  26. _____ is an example of a drug that block the opening of Na+ channels, thus blocking the initiation of neuronal action potentials.

     
  27. After the first phase of the action potential, the _____ channels becomes inactivated while the _____ channels begin to open.
    This occurs when the membrane potential reaches approximately _____. The opening of these channels results in the _____ movement of _____. This second phase of the action potential is the _____ phase.

     
  28. The second phase of the action potential ends when the membrane potential reaches about _____ which triggers the inactivation of the _____ channels.

     
  29. The _____ period of an action potential causes that region of membrane be temporarily unresponsive to another stimulus. This ensures that action potentials migrate in one direction, namely, away from the _____.

     
  30. Overall, two important factors drive the movement of Na+ and K+ across the membranes. These are the _____ gradient and the _____ gradient.

     
  31. For any given neuron, all action potentials are of the same intensity. This is referred to as the "_____" principle. In order to alter the intensity of a given neuronal stimulus, the _____ of firing of action potentials is increased.

     
  32. Action potentials travel fastest in axons that are _____ and _____. The fastest neuronal axon fibers are A-type fibers. These carry _____ and _____ motor signals. The slowest fibers are the C-type fibers. These fibers are _____ and _____ so they transmit action potentials much slower than A-type fibers.

     
  33. At the axon terminals, voltage-gated _____ channels open in response to the arriving action potential. This triggers _____ vesicles to release _____ into the _____.

     
  34. Most neurons in the CNS communicate with _____ to _____ other neurons.

     
  35. The small extensions off of the neuronal cell bodies that receive stimuli are _____.

     
  36. Small, variable intensity, transient changes in membrane potential that moves the potential closer to threshold are referred to as _____ post-synaptic potentials or "____".

     
  37. Small variable intensity, transient changes in membrane potential that moves the potential further away from threshold are referred to as _____ post-synaptic potentials or "____".

     
  38. _____ is a common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS.

     
  39. Movement of Cl- into a neuronal cell would make a neuron _____ likely to fire an action potential.
84) The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and _____.
 
  A) cranial nerves
 
  B) spinal cord
 
  C) peripheral nerves
 
  D) spinal nerves
85) The______of a neuron carries the impulse towards the nucleus.
 
  A) cell body
 
  B) myelin
 
  C) axon
 
  D) dendrite
86) Which part of a neuron is directly involved with protein synthesis?
 
  A) cell body
 
  B) neurofibrils
 
  C) Nissl body
 
  D) neurolemma
87) Which part of a neuron comes in close proximity to another neuron at the synapse?
 
  A) synaptic knob
 
  B) dendrite
 
  C) axon
 
  D) collateral fiber
88) The phagocytic cells in the CNS are the ______.
 
  A) astrocytes
 
  B) microglia
 
  C) oligodendrocytes
 
  D) ependymal cells
89) The _____cells provide a means of acquiring nutrients in the brain.
 
  A) astrocyte
 
  B) microglia
 
  C) ependymal
 
  D) oligodendrocyte
90) The resting potential of a neuron is _____mv.
 
  A) +30
 
  B) -70
 
  C) 0
 
  D) -90
91) The minimal stimulus needed to cause a neuron to transmit an impulse is called the _____.
 
  A) action potential
 
  B) resting potential
 
  C) threshold
 
  D) refractory period
92) The most common neurotransmitter in the body is _____.
 
  A) norepinephrine
 
  B) adrenalin
 
  C) acetylcholine
 
  D) dopamine
93) Acetylcholine is decomposed by _____almost as fast as it is released.
 
  A) monoamine oxidase
 
  B) MAO inhibitors
 
  C) norepinephrine
 
  D) acetylcholinesterase
94) A morphine-like pain suppressing brain substance is _____.
 
  A) substance P
 
  B) beta-endorphin
 
  C) nicotine
 
  D) neuropeptide
95) A drug, which prevents overstimulation by the PNS neurons, is _____.
 
  A) curare (Dilantin)
 
  B) caffeine
 
  C) amphetamine
 
  D) tricyclic anti-depressant
96) Which type of short neuron is found in the retina?
 
  A) bipolar
 
  B) unipolar
 
  C) multipolar
 
  D) sensory
97) The nucleus of a sensory neuron can be found within the _____.
 
  A) CNS
 
  B) ganglia
 
  C) myelin sheath
 
  D) spinal cord
98) The PNS is comprised of cranial nerves and _____.
 
  A) spinal cord
 
  B) sensory nerves
 
  C) the brain
 
  D) spinal nerves
99) Nerves that carry impulses from the heart to the brain could be classed as _____fibers.
 
  A) somatic efferent
 
  B) visceral efferent
 
  C) somatic afferent
 
  D) visceral afferent
100) The cells that produce myelin in the PNS are the ______.
 
  A) oligodendrocytes
 
  B) axons
 
  C) Schwann cells
 
  D) ependymal
101) The ______cells play a role in the establishment of a blood-brain chemical barrier.
 
  A) microglia
 
  B) neuron
 
  C) astrocyte
 
  D) ependymal
102) Branched nerve fibers that convey local potential changes toward the cell body of a neuron are called _____________.
 
  A) axons
 
  B) dendrites
 
  C) axon collaterals
 
  D) axon terminals
103) Myelin sheaths on the outsides of many axons in the peripheral nervous system are contributed by ______________.
 
  A) the axon itself
 
  B) secretory vesicles
 
  C) Schwann cells
 
  D) the cell bodies of the neuron
104) A neuron with many nerve fibers arising from its cell body and that carries impulses away from the brain would be classified as __________________.
 
  A) multipolar
 
  B) bipolar
 
  C) unipolar and sensory
 
  D) multipolar and motor
105) Which types of neurons are likely to increase muscular activities?
 
  A) accelerator neurons
 
  B) inhibitory neurons
 
  C) bipolar neurons
 
  D) sensory neurons
106) The _______________ are the types of neuroglial cells that provide myelin in the central nervous system.
 
  A) astrocytes
 
  B) oligodendrocytes
 
  C) microglia
 
  D) ependyma
107) Which type of neuroglial cells help regulate the composition of cerebrospinal fluid?
 
  A) astrocytes
 
  B) oligodendrocytes
 
  C) microglia
 
  D) ependyma
108) Cut neurons in the PNS possess limited capabilities for regeneration. The type of neuroglial cell that aids regeneration by forming a regeneration tube to help reestablish the former connection is the _______________.
 
  A) Schwann cell
 
  B) astrocyte
 
  C) microglial cell
 
  D) ependymal cell
109) At resting potential, the ion distribution inside and outside of a neuron is such that __________ ions are most abundant on the outside of the cell, while __________ ions are most abundant on the inside of the cell.
 
  A) potassium; sodium
 
  B) sodium; potassium
 
  C) calcium; phosphate
 
  D) sulfate; potassium
110) When a neuron reaches action potential, it depolarizes and repolarizes in an amount of time on the order of ________________.
 
  A) seconds
 
  B) milliseconds
 
  C) microseconds
 
  D) nanoseconds
111) Excessive sleeping is most likely due to the presence of too much of which neurotransmitter?
 
  A) GABA
 
  B) norepinephrine
 
  C) serotonin
 
  D) dopamine
112) Myasthenia gravis reflects a deficiency in communication by _______________ because receptors for this neurotransmitter have been destroyed.
 
  A) acetylcholine
 
  B) norepinephrine
 
  C) GABA
 
  D) dopamine
113) The levels of which neurotransmitter are affected by the mood-elevator, cocaine?
 
  A) serotonin
 
  B) GABA
 
  C) norepinephrine
 
  D) acetylcholine
114) Fibers that originate from different parts of the nervous system and lead to the same neuron are exhibiting _____________.
 
  A) facilitation
 
  B) convergence
 
  C) divergence
 
  D) neuromodulation
115) Which term does not belong with the others?
 
  A) brain
 
  B) spinal cord
 
  C) CNS
 
  D) spinal nerve
116) The cells that conduct messages towards the brain are the_______________.
 
  A) motor neurons
 
  B) sensory neurons
 
  C) interneurons
 
  D) neuroglia
117) Nerves impulses always travel to the brain through _____ fibers.
 
  A) neuron
 
  B) dendrite
 
  C) nerve
 
  D) axon
118) The myelin sheath around a neuron in the PNS is actually produced by the _______________.
 
  A) neuron
 
  B) axon
 
  C) dendrite
 
  D) Schwann cell
119) Which of these cells does not belong with the others?
 
  A) microglia
 
  B) neuron
 
  C) astrocyte
 
  D) oligodendrocyte
120) The _____ cells are capable of removing a blood clot from the brain.
 
  A) astrocyte
 
  B) oligodendrocyte
 
  C) microglia
 
  D) ependymal
121) Which of these is true when a neuron is at rest?
 
  A) the outside is positive
 
  B) the outside is negative
 
  C) there is no voltage
 
  D) the inside is positive
122) The most common neurotransmitter in the body is _____.
 
  A) serotonin
 
  B) dopamine
 
  C) acetylcholine
 
  D) norepinephrine


 

123) A damaged phrenic nerve would heal more slowly than a severed spinal nerve.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
124) Oligodendrocytes can be found within the brain.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
125) Nodes of Ranvier are only found on motor axons.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
126) There is a higher concentration of K+ outside of a resting neuron than Na+.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
127) The axon nerve impulse is self-propagating and occurs in the direction towards the cell body.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
128) A synapse is a junction between two dendrites.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
129) Norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and serotonin are classed as monoamine neurotransmitters.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
130) Food additives, such as MSG (monosodium glutamate) derived from glutamic acid, could act as neurotransmitters.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
131) Neurotransmitters are usually released into the synaptic vesicles during depolarization.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
132) Motor neurons usually have one axon and several dendrites.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
133) Nervous tissue includes areas of connective tissue.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
134) Somatic afferent fibers would carry sensory impulses away from the brain, towards areas such as the eye.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
135) Most brain tumors arise from neuroglial cell overgrowth.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
136) A damaged CNS nerve could not regenerate as easily as a PNS fiber.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
137) The ion that always moves in a membrane direction opposite to sodium is K+.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
138) Calcium channels open during synaptic transmission.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
139) Having myelin increases the velocity of conduction.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
140) Sodium moves out of an axon as it is depolarizing.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
141) Vesicles are intracellular accumulation of neurotransmitter.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
142) Motor neurons receive impulses from the muscles in order to regulate glandular secretions.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
143) The nucleus of a neuron is always located within the cell body region.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
144) All neurons have at least one dendrite but one or more axons.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
145) Motor neurons usually have a more complex structure than sensory neurons.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
146) Only axons are capable of conducting action potentials.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
147) The oligodendrocytes are capable of producing the myelin sheath that will wrap around a spinal nerve.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
148) When a neuron is resting, the outside has more potassium ions than the inside.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
149) The nodes of Ranvier function in slowing the conduction of the impulse.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
150) The enzyme acetylcholinesterase acts to keep the signal duration short between certain neurons or between neurons and skeletal muscle fibers.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False