Digestive System
Answers are provided below each question

1. Chemical digestion of food involves:

A. condensation reactions in the small intestine
B. Enzymatic conversion of monosaccharides to polysaccharides in the small intestine
C. hydrolysis reactions in the large intestine (colon)
D. hydrolysis reactions in the small intestine
E. two of the above.

2. Human dentition can be defined as being:

A. heterodont
B. homodont
C. diphyodont
D. monophyodont
E. two of the preceding.

3. The gall bladder:

A. produces bile
B. is attached to the pancreas
C. stores bile
D. produces gastrin
E. two of the preceding.

4. The esophageal hiatus is the:

A. opening between the esophagus and the pharynx
B. junction between the esophagus and stomach
C. region where the esophagus joins the larynx
D. site where the esophagus passes through the diaphram
E. location where skeletal and smooth muscles merge.

5. A patient who has undergone gastrectomy (=removal of the stomach) may suffer from:

A. cirrhosis of the liver
B. pernicious anemia
C. duodenal ulcer
D. salmonella
E. inability to digest fats.

6. The organs of taste are called:

A. papillae
B. taste pores
C. hair cells
D. taste buds
E. none of the preceding.

7. Blood is drained from the liver by the:

A. hepatic artery and hepatic vein
B. efferent lymphatic vessels
C. hepatic portal vein and hepatic veins
D. hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein
E. hepatic veins.

8. The conversion of amino acids to glucose is an example of:

A. glycogenolysis
B. beta oxidation
C. gluconeogenesis
D. glycogenesis
E. glycolysis.

MATCHING: Select the one correct answer: (Items A through E may be used more than once.)

A) Large intestine
B) pancreas
C) stomach
D) small intestine
E) esophagus

9. Villi are present in this structure
10. Enterokinase is secreted by cells in this structure
11. Peyer's patches are present in the wall
12. Rugae may be present on the luminal surface
13. Sucrase, lactase and maltase are produced by cells in this structure
14. Haustra are typical features of this structure
15. Opens into the laryngopharynx
16. Pepsinogen is produced by cells in this structure
17. Contains the islets of Langerhans
18. The cardia and fundus are regions of this structure
19. Parietal and chief cells are present in the walls
20. The jejunum is part of this structure
21. Aminopeptidase is produced by cells in this structure
22. Lipase is produced by cells in this structure
23. Ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease are produced in this structure
24. Taeniae coli are present in this structure
25. Contains skeletal (striated) and visceral (smooth ) muscle in the wall.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Select the best answer.

26. Which of the following is not a function of the liver?

A. synthesis of blood proteins
B. secretion of digestive enzyme
C. detoxification of certain substances
D. production of urea
E. gluconeogenesis.

27. The dentin in the crown of a tooth is coved by:

A. cementum
B. periodontal membrane
C. connective tissue fibers in the pulp
D. enamel
E. odontoblasts.

28. Pancreatic cells:

A. produce glucagon
B. secrete mucus into the duodenum
C. are located in the mediastinum
D. secrete insulin into the pancreatic
E. two of the above

29. The cecum is a region of the:

A. stomach
B. duodenum
C. large intestine
D. rectum
E. pharynx.

MATCHING: Match the food category with the appropriate enzyme. (Items A through D may be used more than once.)

A) Carbohydrate digestion
B) protein digestion
C) Iipid digestion
D) nucleic acid digestion.

30. Amylase
31. Trypsin
32. Aminopeptidase
33. Lipase
34. Ribonuclease
35. Pepsin.
36. Maltase
37. Chymotrypsin
38. Lactase
39. Sucrase
40. Deoxyribonuclease.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Select the best answer.

41. Which of the following is not a fat-soluable vitamin?

A. vitamin A
B. vitamin E
C. vitamin D
D. vitamin C
E. vitamin K

42. During stress such as fasting or strenuous exercise, the anterior pituitary releases:

B. oxytocin

43. Which of the following hormones can produce hyperglycemia?

B. growth hormone
D. prolactin

44. Calcitonin inhibits:

A. osteoclast activity
B. thyroid activity
C. mammary gland activity
D. pancreatic activity
E. osteoblast activity.

45. The metabolic effects of epinephrine are similar to those of:

A. glucose
B. insulin
C. aldosterone
D. calcitonin
E. glucagon.

46. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released in response to:

A. low levels of plasma calcium
B. low levels of plasma sodium
C. high levels of plasma sodium
D. high levels of plasma calcium
E. none of the preceding.

47. Vitamin D is converted into a hormone that participates in the regulation of:

A. sodium balance
B. calcium balance
C. chloride balance
D. water balance
E. answers A and C.

48. Glucocorticoids are secreted from cells in the:

A. pancreas
B. Iiver
C. adrenal medulla
D. placenta
E. none of the preceding.

49. Hypothyroidism during prenatal development and the first two years after birth may result in

A. goiter
B. cretinism
C. albinism
D. myxydema
E. all of the preceding.

50. If an incision had to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, which tunic (or layer) would be cut first?

A. mucosa
B. submucosa
C. muscularis
D. serosa.

51. The kidneys and most of the pancreas are considered to be:

A. antiperitoneal
B. retroperitoneal
C. medioperitoneal
D. mesoperitoneal
E. paraperitoneal.


TRUE OR FALSE: True = A, False = B

52. The optimal pH for pepsin is about 2.0
53. The muscularis mucosae is composed of smooth muscle fibers
54. The facial cranial nerve innervates the posterior one-third of the tongue
55. Another term for canine teeth is bicuspid teeth
56. The GI tract is innervated by the ANS
57. Each small intestinal microvillus contains a Iymphatic vessel called a lacteal
58. Another term for swallowing is deglutition.

MATCHING. What type of epithelium forms the luminal lining of the following structures? (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.)

A) Simple squamous epithelium
B) stratified, keratinized squamous epithelium
C) simple columnar epithelium
D) stratified, nonkeratinized squamous epithelium
E) pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium.

59. Esophagus
60. Stomach
61. Small intestine
62. Nasal vestibule
63. Nasal cavity
64. Trachea
65. Respiratory alveoli.

  1. The site of production of cholecystokinin and secretin is the:

    1. Stomach

    2. Pancreas

    3. Small Intestine

    4. Large Intestine

  2. If the tight junctions connecting intestinal epithelial cells were removed, the efficiency of nutrient absorption would _____________.

  3. Alkaline mucous glands are found in the submucosa of the:

    1. Ileum

    2. Jejunum

    3. Duodenum

    4. Cardiac region of the stomach

    5. a and b

  4. The _______________________ anchors the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  5. True or False Bile and blood flow in opposite directions in the classical liver lobule.

  6. Which of the following is not a function of the liver?

    1. Production of bile

    2. Detoxification of drugs

    3. Storage of glucose

    4. Storage of Vitamin C

  7. The gallbladder:

    1. Produces bile

    2. Is attached to the pancreas

    3. Stores and concentrates bile

    4. Produces cholecystokinin

  8. The small fat-filled appendages of visceral peritoneum that hang from the surface of the large intestine are known as _______________.

  9. True or False: All digestive organs are intraperitoneal.

  10. The majority of the absorption of digested nutrients occurs in the:

    1. Stomach

    2. Ileum

    3. Jejunum

    4. Cecum

  11. Which of the following sphincters is under voluntary control?

    1. Pyloric

    2. Cardiac

    3. Sphincter of Oddi

    4. Internal anal

    5. External anal

  12. High doses of antibiotics can destroy the bacterial flora of the large intestine. This can result in impaired:

    1. Absorption of protein

    2. Blood coagulation

    3. Bone resorption

    4. Respiratory control

  13. Look at the following layers of the alimentary canal. Arrange them from closest to the lumen to farthest from the lumen.

    1. Serosa

    2. Mucosa

    3. Muscularis externa

    4. Submucosa

  14. During exercise, the percentage of the cardiac output received by the digestive organs will ______________.

  15. Which structure thickens in certain regions of the alimentary canal in order to act as a sphincter?

    1. Circular layer of the muscularis mucosae

    2. Longituidnal layer of the muscularis mucosae

    3. Circular layer of the muscularis externa

    4. Longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa

  16. The internal lip is joined to the gum by the _____________.

  17. The anterior 2/3 of the tongue is separated from the posterior 1/3 by the __________________.

  18. The 3 extrinsic salivary glands are the:

    1. Parotid, sublingual, and ethmoidal

    2. Parotid, buccal, and submaxillary

    3. Parotid, submandibular, and buccal

    4. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual

  19. Which of the following is correct?

    1. Adult incisors lack dentin

    2. Adult incisors lack enamel

    3. Adult premolars lack cementum

    4. Adult premolars lack enamel

    5. None of the above

  20. At the junction between the esophagus and the stomach, the epithelial lining changes abruptly from __________________ to _________________.

    1. Nonkeratinized stratified squamous; simple columnar

    2. Simple columnar; nonkeratinized stratified squamous

    3. Nonkeratinized simple squamous; stratified columnar

    4. Stratified columnar; nonkeratinized simple squamous

  21. In the stomach, food is turned into a paste called _____________.

  22. The entire convex lateral surface of the stomach is the ____________.

  23. Histologically, the stomach wall is unique because it contains:
    1. No lamina propria
    2. 1 extra layer in its muscularis mucosae
    3. 1 extra layer in its muscularis externa
    4. An adventitia in addition to a double-membraned serosa
  24. The gastric gland cell whose absence could lead to pernicious anemia is the:
    1. Chief cell
    2. Goblet cell
    3. Mucous neck cell
    4. Parietal cell
    5. Enteroendocrine cell
  25. The layer of the digestive tube wall which contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodules, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the:
    1. Mucosa
    2. Submucosa
    3. Muscularis Externa
    4. Serosa
  26. Tooth structure includes:
    1. The dentin, which is the hardest substance in the body
    2. A root covered in enamel
    3. A thin periodontal ligament which holds the tooth in place
    4. Pulp, an avascular connective tissue filling the hollow cavity of the tooth
  27. Chemical digestion occurs in:
    1. Oral Cavity
    2. Esophagus
    3. Stomach
    4. Pharynx
    5. 2 of the above
  28. Mechanical digestion occurs in the:
    1. Stomach
    2. Cecum
    3. Pharynx
    4. Esophagus
    5. 2 of the above
  29. Which of the following is NOT true of saliva?
    1. It cleanses the mouth
    2. It typically contains IgE antibodies
    3. It moistens food and aids in the compaction of the bolus
    4. It dissolves food chemicals
  30. The sheets of peritoneal membrane that holds the digestive tract in place are called ___________________.
  31. The entry of bile into the duodenum is controlled by the:
    1. Liver sinusoids
    2. Common pancreatic duct
    3. Pyloric sphincter
    4. Cardiac sphincter
    5. None of the above
  32. Paneth cells:
    1. Are more common in the esophagus than in the jejunum
    2. Are essential for bile synthesis
    3. Secrete antibacterial enzymes
    4. Do not have nuclei
    5. None of the above
  33. A baby is admitted into the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the pyloric sphincter is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates:
    1. Acidosis
    2. Leukocytosis
    3. Alkalosis
    4. An excessively low pH
    5. Excessive proteinuria
  34. True or False: The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile.
  35. The fusion of the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct forms the ______________.
  36. Increasing the surface area of its mucosal lining enhances the absoprtive effectiveness of the small intestine. Which of the following accomplishes this task?
    1. Plicae circulares
    2. Intestinal villi
    3. Microvilli
    4. All of the above
    5. 2 of the above
  37. True or False: The number of mucosal cells bearing microvilli increases as you proceed from the cecum to the sigmoid colon.
  38. Which of the following gastric cell types synthesizes and releases gastin, histamine, cholecystokinin, and serotonin?
    1. Enteroendocrine cells
    2. Parietal cells
    3. Zymogenic cells
    4. Paneth cells
    5. Mucous neck cells
  39. A major function of the large intestine is to:
    1. Secrete digestive enzymes
    2. Remove waste materials
    3. Regulate the release of bile
    4. Secrete water in order to regulate blood volume
  40. Its muscular wall contracts in response to cholecystokinin.
  41. It secretes an alkaline fluid in response to cholecystokinin.
  42. It is the largest gland in the body.
  43. It is associated with vitamin K production.
  44. Part of the digestive tract whose cells have a brush border.
  45. Which of the following is NOT true of the appendix?
    1. Bacteria have a tendency to accumulate within it.
    2. It typically contains lymphocytes
    3. It typically contains MALT
    4. It typically contains almost no capillaries
  46. What distinguishes the rectum from the colon?
    1. The lack of microvilli
    2. The lack of teniae coli
    3. The lack of villi
    4. All of the above
    5. 2 of the above
  47. The sphincter between the stomach and the duodenum is the __________.
  48. Before blood carrying the products of protein digestion reaches the heart, it must first pass through capillary networks in the ___________.
  49. Cancer chemotherapy will ___________ the rate of renewal of the intestinal lining.
  50. Paneth cells are responsible for the production of which of the following?
    1. Gastrin
    2. Secretin
    3. Lysozyme
    4. Amylase
    5. Lipase
  51. Which of the following is not produced by an enteroendocrine cell?
    1. Pepsin
    2. Cholecystokinin
    3. Gastrin
    4. Secretin
    5. 2 of the above
  52. Which of the following would not be seen in a section of the soft palate?
    1. A stratified epithelium
    2. Blood vessels
    3. Bone
    4. Muscle
    5. 2 of the above
  53. Which of the following does not produce digestive enzymes?
    1. Pancreas
    2. Small Intestine
    3. Salivary glands
    4. Stomach
    5. Liver
  54. Which of the following cell types is NOT present in the stomach?
    1. Mucous neck cells
    2. Chief cells
    3. Parietal cells
    4. Epithelial cells
    5. Alpha cells
  55. Which of the following is NOT produced by the exocrine pancreas?
    1. Amylase
    2. Carboxypeptidase
    3. Trypsinogen
    4. Pepsinogen
    5. Chymotrypsinogen
  56. Which of the following is the central component of the classical liver lobule?
    1. Bile canaliculus
    2. Hepatic artery
    3. Central vein
    4. Portal vein
    5. Portal space
  57. Which of the following statements concerning the classical liver lobule is true?
    1. Portal triads are at the center of the lobule
    2. Blood flows from the center to the periphery of this lobule
    3. Bile flows from the center to the periphery of this lobule
    4. All of the above
    5. 2 of the above
  58. Intrinsic factor is produced by which of the following cells?
    1. Chief cells
    2. Paneth cells
    3. Enteroendocrine cells
    4. Parietal cells
    5. Mucous neck cells
  59. Which of the following is a major product of serous salivary gland secretion?
    1. Pepsinogen
    2. Carboxypeptidase
    3. Trypsin
    4. Nuclease
    5. Lysozyme
  60. Which of the following induces contraction of gallbladder smooth muscle?
    1. Secretin
    2. Cholecystokinin
    3. Serotonin
    4. Gastrin
    5. Somatostatin
  61. Which of the following is not a component of gastric juice?
    1. Hydrochloric acid
    2. Mucus
    3. Pepsin
    4. Amylase
    5. Water
  62. Which of the following is true of the liver?
    1. Hepatocytes synthesize many of the blood proteins such as albumin and antibodies
    2. Hepatocytes synthesize 80% of the bile in the body with the other 20% coming from the pancreas
    3. The liver receives more nutrient-rich blood than oxygen-rich blood
    4. The liver is the 2nd largest gland in the body
  63. Pepsinogen is synthesized and released by which of the following?
    1. Parietal cells
    2. Enteroendrocrine cells
    3. Paneth cells
    4. Chief cells
    5. Pancreatic acinar cells
  64. Which of the following pairs of hormones are mainly involved in controlling pancreatic exocrine secretions?
    1. Insulin and glucagon
    2. Cholecystokinin and secretin
    3. Somatostatin and gastrin
    4. Motilin and serotonin
    5. Glucagon and somatostatin
  65. Which of the following organs does not have both endocrine and exocrine function?
    1. Stomach
    2. Small Intestine
    3. Gallbladder
    4. Liver
    5. Pancreas
  66. Which of the following cell types would not be found in lamina propria of a villus?
    1. Endothelial cell
    2. Smooth muscle cell
    3. Lymphocyte
    4. Plasma cell
    5. Goblet cell
  67. The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
    1. Carry toxins to the venous system for disposal thru the urinary tract
    2. Collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
    3. Hormone distribution
    4. Transfer bile to the liver from the pancreas
  68. Which of the following is true?
    1. There are 27 primary teeth, none of which are molars
    2. There are 24 primary teeth and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months
    3. There are 20 primary teeth and most children have all of them by 24 months of age
    4. There are 32 primary teeth
  69. Peristaltic waves are:
    1. Segmental regions of the GI tract
    2. Churning movements of the GI tract
    3. Pendular movements of the GI tract
    4. Waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
    5. Circular contractions of the GI tract muscularis mucosae
  70. If you eat a meal of french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk, which of the following glands would secrete the most enzymes that would be involved in digesting all this food?
    1. Liver
    2. Exocrine pancreas
    3. Endocrine pancreas
    4. Ileum
    5. Buccal Glands
  71. Which of the following is true of the small intestine?
    1. Site of carbohydrate and protein but NOT fat digestion
    2. Site of the majority of water absorption in the GI tract
    3. First site of protein hydrolysis
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above
  72. If you compared the blood entering the liver and the blood leaving the liver, you find that:
    1. Blood leaving the liver has more glucose
    2. Blood leaving the liver contains more oxygen
    3. Blood leaving the liver contains fewer amino acids
    4. Blood leaving the liver contains more toxins and less carbon dioxide
  73. Chemical digestion reduces large molecules to simpler compounds by the process of:
    1. Mastication
    2. Dehydration synthesis
    3. Metabolism
    4. Anabolism
    5. Catabolism
  74. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the colon?
    1. Lacks villi
    2. Contains teniae coli
    3. Longer than the small intestine
    4. Contains a submucosa
    5. Contains fat filled appendages of unknown function
  75. Digestive processes in the large intestine include:
    1. Mass peristalsis
    2. Absorption of some vitamins and electrolytes
    3. Elimination of cellulose-based material
    4. All of the above
    5. 2 of the above
  76. protein molecule will be hydrolyzed by enzymes secreted from the:
    1. Mouth, stomach, small intesine, liver
    2. Stomach, pancreas, small intestine
    3. Stomach, small intestine, liver
    4. Mouth, pancreas, colon
  77. Carbohydrates are acted on by:
    1. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and enterokinase
    2. Amylase, maltase, and sucrase
    3. Lipase
    4. Hexokinase, pepsin, and amylase
  78. Select the correct enzyme-substrate combination.
    1. Amylase - starch
    2. Chymotrypsin - fat
    3. Nuclease - nuclei
    4. Lipase - disaccharides
    5. 2 of the above are correct
  79. Which of the following is true of electrolyte absorption?
    1. Sodium ion absorption is coupled to glucose and amino acid uptake
    2. Potassium can diffuse through the intestinal epithelium
    3. Vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption
    4. All of the above
  80. The bonelike material that underlies the enamel cap and forms the bulk of the tooth is the _____________________.
  81. Chief cells in children secrete an enzyme that curdles milk. That enzyme is:
    1. Chymotrypsin
    2. Pepsinogen
    3. Pepsin
    4. Lactin
    5. Rennin
  82. The chief bile pigment is _________________.
  83. Contributors of enzymes to the digestive tract lumen include all of the following EXCEPT:
    1. Parotid glands
    2. Stomach
    3. Liver
    4. Pancreas
    5. Small Intestine
  84. Each of the following statements about Brunner's glands is correct EXCEPT:
    1. They are a characteristic component of the duodenal wall
    2. They produce a serous secretion rich in digestive enzymes
    3. They lie in the submucosal layer
    4. They empty their secretions into the crypts of Lieberkuhn
  85. The wall of the stomach:
    1. Is covered on its outer surface by simple squamous epithelium
    2. Is thrown into temporary folds called rugae when the stomach is empty
    3. Is covered on its inner surface by a simple columnar epithelium
    4. Has 3 layers of smooth muscle in its muscularis externa
    5. All of the above
  86. Saliva contains:
    1. Amylase
    2. Mucus
    3. Immunoglobulins
    4. Lysozyme
    5. All of the above
    6. Only a and b
  87. Within the connective tissue of a portal triad, one might find a:
    1. Branch of the hepatic artery
    2. Bile duct
    3. Branch of the hepatic portal vein
    4. Lymphatic vessel
    5. All of the above
  88. Both exocrine and endocrine functions are performed by the:
    1. Pancreas
    2. Liver
    3. Crypts of Lieberkuhn
    4. Gastric glands
    5. All of the above
    FOR THE NEXT 6 QUESTIONS, use the following 4 choices.
    Each may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
    1. Hepatic portal vein
    2. Hepatic artery
    3. Both a and b
    4. Neither a nor b
  89. Contain(s) blood richest in nutrients
  90. Contain(s) blood richest in oxygen
  91. Contain(s) blood richest in the breakdown products of red blood cell destruction
  92. Drain(s) into hepatic sinusoids
  93. Receive(s) blood from the central veins
  94. Contribute(s) majority of liver blood volume
  95. As a sympathetic antagonist is injected iv, intestinal motility and secretion will __________________.
  96. As plasma [secretin] increases, stomach acid secretion will ____________.
  97. As plasma [CCK] increases, gastric motility will __________________.
  98. As plasma [gastrin] decreases, parietal cell secretion will _________________.
  99. As plasma [somatostatin] increases, stomach [pepsinogen] will ___________.
  100. As plasma [CCK] decreases, bile secretion ________________.
  101. What brain center controls deglutition?
  102. What type of contraction propels food thru the esophagus?
  103. How does atrophy of the gastric mucosa cause pernicious anemia?
  104. How would removal of the terminal ileum cause pernicious anemia?
  105. Most of the water you drink is absorbed in the:
    1. Colon
    2. Jejunum
    3. Stomach
    4. Kidney
  106. What organ produces the enzyme trypsin?
    1. Gallbladder
    2. Liver
    3. Pancreas
    4. Spleen
  107. In which test tube would protein digestion occur at the highest rate?
    1. Tube containing pepsinogen and salivary amylase
    2. Tube containing pepsinogen
    3. Tube containing HCl
    4. Tube containing HCl and intestinal amylase
    5. Tube containing HCl and pepsinogen
173) Which gastrointestinal layer is characterized by having tough, fibrous connective tissue?
  A) mucosa
  B) submucosa
  C) muscle
  D) serosa
174) Which intestinal layer accounts for the action of the peristaltic waves?
  A) serosa
  B) muscularis
  C) submucosa
  D) mucous
175) The alimentary tube is around _____ meters long.
  A) 2
  B) 4
  C) 6
  D) 9
176) The _____ nervous system division usually stimulates and promotes digestion.
  A) somatic
  B) sympathetic
  C) central
  D) parasympathetic
177) The processes of chewing are referred to as _____.
  A) churning
  B) mastication
  C) peristalsis
  D) deglutition
178) The frenulum is the membrane attached to the inferior surface of the _____.
  A) tongue
  B) stomach
  C) lips
  D) liver
179) The following are true of the tongue except which one?
  A) contains skeletal muscle
  B) attaches to hyoid bone
  C) attaches to temporal bone
  D) contains papillae
180) The following areas contain tonsils except which one?
  A) around the frenulum
  B) oropharynx
  C) nasopharynx
  D) root of tongue
181) Which lymphatic areas are most commonly the site of inflammation?
  A) Peyer's patches
  B) palatine tonsils
  C) lingual tonsils
  D) adenoids
182) How many teeth will be produced in an average lifetime?
  A) 20
  B) 32
  C) 30
  D) 52
183) The term wisdom tooth refers to the _____ tooth.
  A) incisor
  B) third molar
  C) second bicuspid
  D) first cuspid
184) The portion of a tooth which lies within the mandible socket is called the _____.
  A) dentin
  B) crown
  C) root
  D) cementum
185) Which part of a tooth most closely resembles bone tissue?
  A) enamel
  B) cementum
  C) dentin
  D) gingiva
186) Which muscles constrict to prevent air from entering the esophagus during breathing?
  A) superior constrictor
  B) middle constrictor
  C) inferior constrictor
  D) esophageal
187) A hiatal hernia is a weakness in the _____ muscle, which allows a portion of the digestive tract to enter the thoracic cavity.
  A) diaphragm
  B) stomach
  C) intestinal
  D) thoracic wall
188) The _____ part of the stomach is the area that is connected to the esophagus.
  A) cardiac
  B) pyloric
  C) fundus
  D) body
189) The _____ prevents food from entering the small intestine.
  A) cardiac sphincter
  B) pyloric valve
  C) ileo-colic valve
  D) sphincter of Oddi
190) Gastric enzymes are secreted by the _____ cells.
  A) chief
  B) goblet
  C) parietal
  D) oxyntic
191) Proteins are digested or broken down by the _____ in the stomach.
  A) pepsinogen
  B) pepsin
  C) hydrochloric acid
  D) lipase
192) Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all of the following except which one?
  A) secretion of somatostatin
  B) inhibition of somatostatin
  C) secretion of gastrin
  D) promotes histamine
193) Gastrin secretion will stop when the stomach pH reaches _____.
  A) 7.0
  B) 4.5
  C) 1.5
  D) 3.0
194) The alkaline tide occurs when _____ is/are secreted into the blood.
  A) HCl
  B) H+
  C) bicarbonate ions
  D) phosphate ions
195) What is the stimulus for cholecystokinin release?
  A) chyme
  B) lipids
  C) protein
  D) gastrin
196) What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum?
  A) pyloric valve
  B) sphincter of Oddi
  C) the common bile duct
  D) cholecystokinin secretion
197) Which of the following triggers the formation of the others?
  A) trypsin
  B) enterokinase
  C) carboxypeptidase
  D) chymotrypsin
198) Pancreatitis is mainly the result of _____ activity.
  A) bile
  B) bacterial
  C) carboxypeptidase
  D) trypsin
199) Which of the following are not active in the duodenum?
  A) nuclease
  B) enterokinase
  C) pepsin
  D) amylase
200) Secretin from the duodenum causes the pancreas to produce secretions rich in _____.
  A) proteolytic enzymes
  B) amylase
  C) lipase
  D) bicarbonate
201) Which of these is a hormone name?
  A) trypsin
  B) ribonuclease
  C) cholecystokinin
  D) chymotrypsinogen
202) The hormone that causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme rich fluid is _____.
  A) cholecystokinin
  B) secretin
  C) enterogastrone
  D) enterocrinin
203) Which organ has the most metabolically active cells?
  A) pancreas
  B) liver
  C) stomach
  D) small intestine
204) Urea is synthesized by the liver following _____ metabolism.
  A) carbohydrate
  B) protein
  C) lipid
  D) nucleic acid
205) Ferritin is a globular protein that transports and stores ______ in the liver and blood.
  A) glycogen
  B) lipids
  C) vitamin B12
  D) iron


206) Which of the following vitamins is not stored in the liver?
  A) C
  B) D
  C) B12
  D) A
207) The liver stores ______ for energy.
  A) nucleic acids
  B) glycogen
  C) glucose
  D) vitamins
208) Which of the following is not a function of the adult liver?
  A) glycogen storage
  B) detoxification
  C) synthesis of clotting proteins
  D) erythropoiesis
210) The liver contains special blood channels termed _____.
  A) sinusoids
  B) central vein
  C) hepatic cells
  D) portal veins
211) The falciform ligament separates the right from _____ lobe.
  A) quadrate
  B) left
  C) caudate
  D) pancreatic
212) Which organ produces and secretes bile?
  A) liver
  B) gallbladder
  C) pancreas
  D) duodenum
213) The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the _____.
  A) gallbladder
  B) pancreas
  C) intestine
  D) liver
214) The buildup of bile pigment in tissues that can be caused by gallstones is _____.
  A) hyperbilirubinemia
  B) obstructive jaundice
  C) hepatitis
  D) hepatocellular jaundice
215) Which of the following are liver waste products?
  A) bilirubin
  B) bile salts
  C) cholesterol
  D) electrolytes
216) The _____ duct directly receives the fluids from the gallbladder.
  A) cystic
  B) common bile
  C) hepatic
  D) common hepatic
217) The common bile duct is formed by the merger of the hepatic and _____ ducts.
  A) common hepatic
  B) cystic
  C) pancreatic
  D) Santorini
218) The ampulla of Vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the _____ duct.
  A) hepatic
  B) pancreatic
  C) cystic
  D) common hepatic
219) Gallbladder stones are medically referred to as a _____ condition.
  A) cholecystitis
  B) cholecystectomy
  C) cholelithiasis
  D) cholesterol calculi
220) Bile facilitates digestion by causing the _____ of fats.
  A) hydrolysis
  B) digestion
  C) catalysis
  D) emulsification
221) Bile salts combine with fatty acids to form complexes called _____ that facilitate absorption.
  A) chylomicrons
  B) micelles
  C) globules
  D) lipoproteins
222) Which of these is a water soluble vitamin?
  A) D
  B) C
  C) E
  D) K
223) Which of the following acts to inhibit acid production?
  A) secretin
  B) somatostatin
  C) cholecystokinin
  D) gastrin
224) Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity?
  A) duodenum
  B) colon
  C) jejunum
  D) ileum
225) The shortest section of the intestines is the _____.
  A) colon
  B) duodenum
  C) ileum
  D) jejunum
226) The membrane that hangs like an apron over the intestines is the _____.
  A) mesentery
  B) visceral peritoneum
  C) parietal peritoneum
  D) greater omentum
227) The finger-like extensions inside the small intestine are called _____ and increase the surface area.
  A) microvilli
  B) villi
  C) lacteals
  D) lumens
228) The _____ are vessels that project into the villi and absorb fatty substances.
  A) lacteals
  B) lymphatics
  C) veins
  D) arteries
229) The following belong together except which one?
  A) small intestine
  B) large intestine
  C) plicae circulares
  D) crypts of Lieberkuhn
230) Which of these does not belong with the others?
  A) lipase
  B) sucrase
  C) maltase
  D) lactase
231) Which is the only area that can digest a double sugar?
  A) jejunum
  B) stomach
  C) duodenum
  D) pancreas
232) Amylase could be found in all of these areas except which one?
  A) mouth
  B) stomach
  C) duodenum
  D) pancreas
233) Most of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the _____.
  A) colon
  B) duodenum
  C) jejunum
  D) ileum
234) Fatty acids and glycerol are released when _____ are broken down by liver or muscle cells.
  A) micelles
  B) chylomicrons
  C) lacteals
  D) lipoproteins
235) Which of the following is not readily absorbed in the small intestine?
  A) Na+
  B) Cl-
  C) K+
  D) Mg2+
236) The ileocecal valve prevents chyme from entering the _____.
  A) large intestine
  B) small intestine
  C) stomach
  D) duodenum
237) A peristaltic rush which results in a failure to absorb enough colon water results in _____.
  A) constipation
  B) diarrhea
  C) cramps
  D) flatus
238) The _____________ layer of the alimentary canal contains loose connective tissue, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
  A) mucosa
  B) submucosa
  C) muscular layer
  D) serosa
239) Activities of the digestive system are generally increased by _________________ nervous stimulation.
  A) sympathetic
  B) parasympathetic
  C) somatic
  D) autonomic
240) The purpose of the soft palate is to __________________.
  A) house extra taste buds
  B) sense temperature of food before it is swallowed
  C) produce saliva and enzymatic secretions
  D) close off the nasal cavity during swallowing
241) Compared to the others listed below, which type of tooth is more likely to be involved in grinding food?
  A) incisor
  B) cuspid
  C) premolar
  D) molar
242) What mouth part helps to mix food with saliva, moves food toward the pharynx for swallowing, and houses taste receptor cells?
  A) lips
  B) palate
  C) tongue
  D) cheeks
243) Which salivary glands produce the most viscous saliva with lots of mucus?
  A) sublingual glands
  B) submandibular glands
  C) parotid glands
  D) serous cells
244) What initiates the swallowing reflex?
  A) fear of choking on food
  B) the tongue rolling the bolus to the pharynx
  C) sensory receptors detecting the bolus in the pharynx
  D) secretion of saliva at the thought of food
245) The main part of the stomach is the _______________ of the stomach.
  A) cardiac region
  B) fundic region
  C) body
  D) pyloric region
246) Intrinsic factor is secreted by which cells of the gastric glands?
  A) mucous cells
  B) chief cells
  C) peptic cells
  D) parietal cells
247) During which stage of gastric secretion do gastric glands actually begin secreting gastric juice?
  A) cephalic phase
  B) gastric phase
  C) intestinal phase
  D) enterogastric reflex
248) The pancreas secretes enzymes that enter the small intestine and chemically digest chyme. Choose the enzyme(s) that break(s) down fats.
  A) carboxypeptidase
  B) pancreatic lipase
  C) trypsinogen
  D) pancreatic amylase
249) What hormone does the small intestine release in response to acidic chyme?
  A) cholecystokinin
  B) secretin
  C) digestin
  D) gastrin
250) What is the primary purpose of the liver in aiding digestion?
  A) produces digestive enzymes
  B) produces alkaline solution to neutralize stomach acidity
  C) produces bile to emulsify fats in the small intestine
  D) produces substances that aid the large intestine in water absorption
251) How are the components of fats absorbed in the small intestine?
  A) Specific receptor proteins carry fatty acids across the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream.
  B) Fatty acids are transported by active transport to the bloodstream.
  C) Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes, are reconstructed in the cells, then carried off by lacteals as chylomicrons.
  D) Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes and into the bloodstream where they are carried to the liver for processing.
252) What is the primary function of the large intestine?
  A) to complete the absorption of most nutrients
  B) to house gas-producing bacteria
  C) to rid the body of toxins
  D) to compact, store, and eliminate feces
253) Where does the greatest amount of digestion occur?
  A) small intestine
  B) stomach
  C) large intestine
  D) liver
254) Which term does not belong with the others?
  A) teeth
  B) mastication
  C) esophagus
  D) tongue
255) Which gland is closest to the joint between the mandible and temporal bone?
  A) sublingual
  B) pancreas
  C) submaxillary
  D) parotid
256) The portion of a tooth below the gums is the _____.
  A) dentin
  B) crown
  C) root
  D) pulp
257) The enzyme salivary amylase begins to digest which molecules?
  A) proteins
  B) carbohydrates
  C) lipids
  D) nucleic acids
258) Where are the palatine tonsils located?
  A) larynx
  B) pharynx
  C) trachea
  D) esophagus
259) The surface area of the stomach is enhanced by the presence of folds called _____.
  A) rugae
  B) villi
  C) microvilli
  D) plicae
260) Where would the least amount of bacteria be found?
  A) small intestine
  B) colon
  C) stomach
  D) pharynx
261) What normally holds the intestines in position within the abdominal cavity?
  A) mesentery
  B) gravity
  C) adipose
  D) stomach muscles
262) The pancreatic duct connects to what part of the digestive tube?
  A) jejunum
  B) liver
  C) ileum
  D) duodenum
263) Which of these does not directly promote the hydrolysis of food?
  A) villi
  B) microvilli
  C) submucosa
  D) mucosa
264) The outer layer of the intestines is the ____
  A) mucosa
  B) serosa
  C) submucosa
  D) muscularis
265) Where are the lacteals located?
  A) liver
  B) pancreas
  C) small intestine
  D) large intestine
266) The appendix is attached to which of the following structures?
  A) transverse colon
  B) descending colon
  C) ascending colon
  D) cecum
267) Which of these vitamins is formed by bacteria in the colon?
  A) C
  B) D
  C) B6
  D) K


268) The area called the vermiform appendix apparently serves no digestive function in humans.
  A) True
  B) False
269) The descending colon usually lies on the left abdominal wall area.
  A) True
  B) False
270) The external anal sphincter is under voluntary control.
  A) True
  B) False
271) The Valsalva maneuver or defecation reflex, can aid defecation but could potentiate a heart attack.
  A) True
  B) False
272) The visceral peritoneum is a fibrous membrane, which wraps around the outer layer of the intestines.
  A) True
  B) False
273) The mucous cells of the salivary glands secrete amylase which facilitates digestion of starches.
  A) True
  B) False
274) Stensen's duct conveys saliva from the submandibular gland into the oral cavity.
  A) True
  B) False
275) During swallowing, the soft palate is moved upward and the epiglottis is tilted downward.
  A) True
  B) False
276) Gastric intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
  A) True
  B) False
277) Emetics cause the vomiting center in the hypothalamus to propel food by contracting stomach muscles.
  A) True
  B) False
278) The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills.
  A) True
  B) False
279) Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects digestion as well as respiration.
  A) True
  B) False
280) The portal veins drain blood from the liver and convey it to the inferior vena cava.
  A) True
  B) False
281) The liver has the ability to convert carbohydrates into amino acids.
  A) True
  B) False
282) Hepatitis can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A which can be transmitted by contaminated food.
  A) True
  B) False
283) Hepatitis is an infection of the liver most commonly caused by hepatitis A viruses.
  A) True
  B) False
284) Hemolytic jaundice is a disease involving an excess production of erythrocytes.
  A) True
  B) False
285) Without a gallbladder, a person will develop vitamin and lipid deficiencies because of the lack of bile.
  A) True
  B) False
286) In the condition of lactose intolerance, the person develops problems because of the rapid digestion of lactose.
  A) True
  B) False
287) Chylomicrons are lipoprotein aggregates that are absorbed into the intestinal villi.
  A) True
  B) False
288) The digestive system functions to provide cells with proper amounts of proteins, carbohydrate or fats.
  A) True
  B) False
289) The so-called wisdom teeth are actually the four last molars.
  A) True
  B) False
290) The pyloric sphincter acts to prevent food from leaving the small intestine.
  A) True
  B) False