Respiratory System
Answers are provided below each question

1. After passing through the nasal cavity during inspiration, air will pass through the:

A. oropharynx
B. nasopharynx
C. Larynx
D. trachea
E. laryngopharynx

2. Most inspired particles of dust fail to reach the lungs because of the:

A. mucous lining in the nasal cavity and trachea
B. abundant blood supply to the nasal mucosa
C. action of the epiglottis
D. porous structure of the ethmoid bone
E. all of the above.

3. Which of the following is not a structural feature of the right lung?

A. superior lobe
B. hilum
C. cardiac notch
D. inferior lobe
E. middle lobe.

4. Of the following structures, the smallest in diameter would be the:

A. left primary bronchus
B. trachea
C. right primary bronchus
D. secondary bronchus
E. bronchiole.

5. "The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume" is a statement of:

A. Dalton's Law
B. Henry's Law
C. Starlings's Law
D. Boyle's Law
E. the law of LaPlace.

6. Which of the following bones does not contain a paranasal sinus?

A. nasal
B. maxilla
C. spheroid
D. frontal
E. ethmoid

7. The adult lungs are:

A. covered with a tough membrane called the parietal pleura
B. spongy, air-filled sacs, located inferior to the diaphragm
C. covered with a thin mucous membrane
D. covered with a serous membrane called the visceral pleura
E. lobulated, the right lung has 2 lobes, and the left lung has 3 lobes

8. The detergent-like molecule that keeps the alveoli from collapsing between breaths because it reduces the surface tension of the fluid film in the alveoli is called:

A. lecithin
B. reluctant
C. surfactant
D. bile
E. none of the preceding.

9. The term respiration refers to:

A. ventilation (=breathing)
B. gas exchange within the lungs
C. oxygen utilization within the cells
D. all of the preceding
E. answers A and B only.

MATCHING. (Items A through E may be used more than once.)

A. laryngopharynx
B. oropharynx
C. trachea
D. larynx
E. nasopharynx

11. Composed of a framework involving 9 cartilages
12. This region contains the palatine tonsils
13. Paired auditory (Eustachian) tubes open into this area
14. The wall contains 16 to 20 C-shaped cartilaginous rings.
15. Pharyngeal tonsils located in this region
16. The lowermost portion of the pharynx
17. This region opens into the esophagus
18. The opening of this structure is called the glottis
19. This structure contains a cricoid cartilage
20. This structure contains the thyroid cartilage
21. This region contains the lingual tonsils.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Select the best answer.

22. The muscles involved in deep or forced inspiration are the:

A. diaphragm and external intercostals
B. diaphragm and abdominal muscles
C. scalenes and sternocleidomastoids
D. trapezius and semispinalis capitis
E. answers A and D.

23. A patient exhales normally, then, using forced ventilation, the patient blows as much air as possible into a spirometer. This would measure the:

A. inspiratory reserve volume
B. vital capacity
C. tidal volume
D. expiratory reserve volume
E. cell respiration.

24. Which of the following is not part of the conducting division of the bronchial tree?

A. trachea
B. terminal bronchiole
C. primary bronchus
D. secondary bronchus
E. alveolar duet.

25. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the alveoli by:

A. filtration
B. osmosis
C. diffusion
D. active transport
E. two of the preceding.

26. The trachea is located to the larynx.

A. superior
B. medial
C. inferior
D. lateral
E. none of the preceding.

27. The epithelium lining the lumen of conducting bronchioles is:

A. simple cuboidal
B. simple squamous
C. stratified squamous
D. transitional
E. none of the preceding

TRUE OR FALSE: True = A, False = B

28. Forced expiration is a passive process
29. Elasticity of the lungs refers to their tendency to recoil after distension
30. Intrapulmonary pressure is sub-atmospheric during inspiration
31. Surfactant is produced by Type I alveolar cells
32. Tracheal rings are composed of hyaline cartilage
33. Surfactant is produced afterbirth
34. Fetal lungs contain small amounts of atmospheric air in the alveoli
35. Vital capacity of the lungs is expiratory reserve volume, tidal volume plus residual volume



  1. What type of epithelium would you expect to find lining the lumen of the nasal cavity?
    1. Squamous ciliated epithelium without goblet cells
    2. Transitional epithelium with goblet cells
    3. Olfactory epithelium
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above
  2. The groove inferior to a nasal concha is known as a:
    1. Meatus
    2. Papilla
    3. Eustachian groove
    4. Lithysis
    5. Suture
  3. Consider the following statement: All laryngeal cartilages are made of hyaline cartilage. Which of the following is correct?
    1. The statement is true
    2. The statement is false because the thyroid cartilage is elastic cartilage
    3. The statement is false because the cricoid cartilage is fibrocartilage
    4. The statement is false because the glottis is elastic cartilage
    5. The statement is false because the epiglottis is elastic cartilage
  4. The medial opening between the vocal cords through which air passes during speech is known as the __________________.
  5. Which of the following is TRUE?
    1. The trachea is reinforced by 60-80 C-shaped rings of cartilage
    2. The trachealis is the ligament that connects the posterior open portion of the tracheal cartiliginous rings
    3. The trachea is part of the respiratory zone
    4. The trachea is part of the anatomical dead space
  6. As you proceed from primary bronchus to terminal bronchiole, the number of cilia present will _______________ and the number of goblet cells present will ______________.
  7. The smallest subdivision of the lung visible to the naked eye is the _________________.
  8. Increased parasympathetic activity causes the resistance to airflow in the bronchioles to ________________.
  9. Which of the following is TRUE?
    1. Intrapleural pressure is ALWAYS GREATER than intrapulmonary pressure
    2. Intrapulmonary pressure is ALWAYS GREATER than atmospheric pressure
    3. Intrapleural pressure is ALWAYS LESS than atmospheric pressure
    4. Intrapulmonary pressure is ALWAYS LESS than atmospheric pressure
  10. According to Boyle's Law, as volume ___________, pressure will decrease.
  11. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostals causes thoracic volume to ____________ which causes lung volume to _____________ which causes intrapulmonary pressure to ________________.
  12. The scalenes and sternocleidomastoids are predominantly involved in:
    1. Active inspiration
    2. Active expiration
    3. Quiet inspiration
    4. Quiet expiration
  13. As surfactant production decreases, lung compliance will _____________.
  14. If John's vital capacity is 4.5L and his tidal volume is 525cc, then what is his inspiratory reserve volume?
    1. 3975mL
    2. 2075mL
    3. 1050mL
    4. Cannot be determined from the information given
  15. What test measures the amount of gas expelled when one takes a deep breath and exhales maximally and rapidly?
    1. Forced expiratory volume test
    2. Forced vital capacity test
    3. Forced residual capacity test
    4. Forced internal thoracic volume assessment
  16. Which of the following is NOT a component of the respiratory membrane?
    1. Plasma membrane of the alveolar cell
    2. Plasma membrane of the capillary endothelial cell
    3. Fused basal laminae of the alveolar and the capillary endothelial cell
    4. All of the above are members of the respiratory membrane
  17. If alveolar Pco2 is high, the diameter of the bronchiole servicing that tissue will ______________.
  18. The dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata is active during:
    1. Quiet inspiration
    2. Forced inspiration
    3. Forced expiration
    4. a and b
    5. b and c
  19. True or False: Lowered plasma oxygen levels are the most powerful respiratory stimulant.
  20. Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the:
    1. Trachea
    2. Pharynx
    3. Larynx
    4. Carina
  21. Total lung capacity is equal to:
    1. Vital capacity x Tidal volume
    2. Functional residual capacity + Expiratory reserve volume
    3. Anatomical dead space + Alveolar dead space
    4. Residual volume + Vital capacity
  22. Which of the following has the greatest surface area for exchange?
    1. Pulmonary veins
    2. Alveoli
    3. Respiratory bronchioles
    4. Terminal bronchioles
  23. Respiratory control centers are located in the_____________ and _________.
  24. The first portion of the respiratory zone is the ________________.
  25. True or False: Internal respiration is O2 loading and CO2 unloading between the blood of the pulmonary capillaries and the air of the alveoli.
  26. As alveolar dead space increases, alveolar ventilation will ___________.
  27. The presence of air in the interpleural space is known as ________________.
  28. Which of these values would normally be the highest?
    1. Tidal Volume
    2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume
    3. Expiratory Rserve Volume
    4. Residual Volume
    5. Vital Capacity
  29. Rank the following in terms of diameter.
    1. Alveolar Duct
    2. Tertiary Bronchus
    3. Trachea
    4. Secondary Bronchus
  30. Which of the following is true?
    1. The thyroid cartilage is the smallest of the laryngeal cartilages
    2. The cricoid cartilage is inferior to the thyroid cartilage
    3. The laryngeal prominence is part of the cuneiform cartilage
    4. The laryngeal prominence is larger in females than in males
    5. There are 4 pairs of cartilage and 1 unpaired cartilage in the larynx
  31. Stimulating the cephalic end of a cut vagus nerve would cause respiration to:
    1. Cease because of the lung stretch receptor reflex
    2. Increase in rate because of the increased activity of the dorsal respiratory group
    3. Increase in depth because of the increased sympathetic activity
    4. None of the above
  32. Which of the following cells produce surfactant in lung alveoli?
    1. Endothelial cells
    2. Clara cells
    3. Type I cells
    4. Type II cells
    5. Dust cells
  33. Progressing from the nasopharynx to the lung, alveoli are first encountered in which of the following?
    1. Trachea
    2. Bronchiole
    3. Terminal bronchiole
    4. Respiratory bronchiole
    5. Alveolar duct
  34. Which of the following structures does not have cartilage associated with it?
    1. Bronchiole
    2. Bronchi (small)
    3. Bronchi (large)
    4. Trachea
    5. Larynx
  35. Which of the following would not be seen in a cross-section of a trachea?
    1. Perichondrium
    2. Elastic cartilage
    3. Lamina propria
    4. Dense connective tissue
    5. Lymphoid nodules
  36. Goblet cells are absent from which of the following regions of the respiratory system?
    1. Nasopharynx
    2. Larynx
    3. Trachea
    4. Bronchi
    5. Terminal Bronchioles
  37. The loudness of a person's voice depends on:
    1. The thickness of the vestibular folds
    2. The length of the vocal folds
    3. The strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
    4. The force with which air rushes through the glottis
    5. The thickness of the true vocal folds
  38. Surfactant causes alveolar surface tension to __________
  39. Inspiratory capacity is:
    1. The total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
    2. The total amount of exchangeable air
    3. Another name for functional residual capacity
    4. The amount of air inspired after a tidal inspiration
    5. A and c are correct
  40. The most powerful respiratory stimulant in a healthy person is:
    1. Decreased tissue [oxygen]
    2. Increased plasma Pco2
    3. Increased CSF pH
    4. Decreased CSF pH
  41. Which of the following changes occur as conducting tubes become smaller?
    1. Cartilage rings are replaced by irregular cartilage plates
    2. Mucosal epithelium changes
    3. Smooth muscle content increases
    4. All of the above
    5. 2 of the above
  42. A premature baby usually has trouble breathing. However the respiratory system is completely developed by:
    1. 17 wks
    2. 22 wks
    3. 24 wks
    4. 28 wks
    5. 20 wks
  43. The nose serves all the following functions except:
    1. Passageway for air movement
    2. Initiator of the cough reflex
    3. Warming and humidifying inspired air
    4. Cleansing inspired air
    5. Providing resonance for speech production
  44. Possible causes of hypoxemia include:
    1. Decreased atmospheric oxygen content
    2. Tracheal obstruction
    3. Pneumonia
    4. A and b are correct
    5. A, b, and c are correct
  45. Tidal volume is air:
    1. Remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
    2. Exchanged during normal breathing
    3. Inhaled after quiet inspiration
    4. Forcibly expelled after normal expiration
  46. The RBC count increases after an individual spends significant time at higher altitude because:
    1. Temperature is lower at higher altitudes
    2. Basal metabolic rate is lower at higher altitudes
    3. Basal metabolic rate is higher at higher altitudes
    4. Atmospheric Po2 is higher at higher altitudes
    5. Atmospheric Po2 is lower at higher altitudes
  47. Most inspired particles (e.g., dust) fail to reach the lungs because of the:
    1. Ciliated mucous lining in the nose
    2. Abundant blood supply to the nasal mucosa
    3. Porous structure of the turbinate bones
    4. Contraction of the epiglottis
    5. 2 of the above
  48. When the inspiratory muscles contract:
    1. The diameter of the thoracic cavity increases
    2. The length of the thoracic cavity increases
    3. The volume of the thoracic cavity is decreased
    4. The diameter and length of the thoracic cavity both increase
    5. None of the above
  49. Damage to which of the following would result in cessation of breathing?
    1. The pneumotaxic center
    2. The medulla
    3. Lung stretch receptors
    4. The apneustic center
    5. The pons
  50. Which respiratory muscles would contract as you blew air into a balloon?
    1. Diaphragm
    2. Internal intercostals
    3. External intercostals
    4. All of the above
  51. The main inspiratory center of the brain is the _____________. It signals the _____________ (the main inspiratory muscle)
    to contract via the _____________ nerve.
    For questions 97 and 98, consider the following substances:
    1. H+
    2. CO2
    3. O2
    4. HCO3-
    5. Na+
  52. Which of the above can cross the blood-brain barrier?
  53. Which of the above directly affect(s) medullary chemoreceptors?
  54. Diaphragm contraction causes the thoracic volume to ________ and the thoracic pressure to ___________.
  55. The most important receptors for respiration regulation are:
    1. Located in the brachial artery
    2. Most sensitive to changes in Po2
    3. Affected by changes in pH
    4. Not found in the medulla
  56. As ACH is injected iv, bronchiole diameter will __________________.
  57. Which of the following are functions of components of the respiratory system?
    1. Warming and moistening of inhaled air
    2. Delivering oxygen to and removing carbon dioxide from the blood
    3. Assisting in the maintenance of blood pH
    4. All of the above
    5. 2 of the above
  58. Which of the following occurs during inspiration?
    1. Diaphragm contracts and flattens
    2. Intrathoracic pressure does not change
    3. External intercostals relax
    4. Thoracic volume decreases
  59. As pulmonary edema progresses during congestive heart failure, the rate of O2 diffusion in the lung..
  60. As pleural space pressure increases, lung volume...
  61. As the presence of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (a surfactant) in the alveoli decreases, lung compliance...
  62. As exhalation proceeds, alveolar wall tension...
  63. In a fit of anger, you jab your A&P instructor with a syringe full of 1M NaOH. You sit back and watch with delight as he doubles over. You notice that his respiration has changed? How did it change and why?????
99) The utilization of oxygen by metabolic processes is correctly referred to as _____.
A) respiration
B) ventilation
C) external respiration
D) cell respiration
100) Which of the following is part of the upper respiratory tract?
A) lungs
B) trachea
C) bronchi
D) pharynx
101) The internal nares will open into the _____.
A) trachea
B) nasopharynx
C) oropharynx
D) nasal cavity
102) The olfactory nerves pass through openings in the _____.
A) vomer
B) cribriform plate
C) superior conchae
D) nasal septum
103) Most of the respiratory passage surface is lined with _____.
A) pseudostratified epithelium
B) simple columnar cells
C) stratified squamous cells
D) simple squamous epithelium
104) Which of the following is not a property of the mucous lining of the respiratory tract?
A) warms incoming air
B) contains microvilli
C) contains cilia
D) cleanses particles
105) Which of the following does not contain a sinus?
A) frontal bone
B) ethmoid
C) zygomatic bone
D) sphenoid bone
106) What is the anatomical term for the throat?
A) larynx
B) pharynx
C) trachea
D) esophagus
107) Where are the palatine tonsils located?
A) oropharynx
B) nasopharynx
C) laryngopharynx
D) nasal cavity proper
108) The epiglottis is part of the _____ and covers the glottis.
A) trachea
B) oropharynx
C) larynx
D) laryngopharynx
109) The true vocal cords move because they are attached to the ______ cartilage.
A) thyroid
B) cricoid
C) corniculate
D) arytenoid
110) C-shaped pieces of cartilage are found within the _____.
A) trachea
B) bronchioles
C) larynx
D) pharynx
111) The carina separates the _____ from each other.
A) lungs
B) secondary bronchi
C) primary bronchi
D) trachea and bronchi
112) There are _____ secondary bronchi?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 5
D) 6
113) The bronchioles enter the _____ of the lungs.
A) carina
B) hilus
C) lobules
D) alveoli
114) The functional gas exchanging units are termed _____.
A) lobules
B) lobar areas
C) alveoli
D) bronchioles
115) The relative amount of smooth muscle is highest in the _____.
A) primary bronchi
B) bronchioles
C) trachea
D) secondary bronchi
116) The tissue lining the alveoli is _____ epithelium.
A) pseudostratified columnar
B) cuboidal
C) simple squamous
D) stratified squamous
117) How many alveoli are there in an average adult lung?
A) 100,000
B) 1 million
C) 300,000,000
D) 50,000
118) Gas is exchanged in the alveoli by a process of _____.
A) simple diffusion
B) active transport
C) facilitated diffusion
D) filtration
119) What is the entrance into the lungs called?
A) carina
B) apex
C) lobule
D) hilus
120) The pleural cavity is the space between the lung and _____.
A) visceral pleural
B) thoracic wall
C) parietal pleura
D) mediastinum
121) The main function of the pleural membranes is to _____.
A) maintain pressure
B) increase thoracic pressure
C) remove foreign particles
D) reduce friction
122) Atmospheric pressure is around _____ mmHg.
A) 760
B) 500
C) 120
D) 850
123) The movement of air within the respiratory system is correctly referred to as _____.
A) breathing
B) inhalation
C) exhalation
D) ventilation
124) What prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhalation?
A) surface tension
B) cartilage
C) phospholipids
D) pressure
125) The main force causing the exhalation of air is the _____.
A) contraction of diaphragm
B) elastic recoil
C) diaphragm relaxation
D) intercostal muscles
126) During inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure reaches _____.
A) 760 mmHg
B) 758 mmHg
C) 763 mmHg
D) 730 mmHg
127) A pneumothorax occurs when the thoracic pleural pressure reaches around _____ mmHg.
A) 780
B) 760
C) 755
D) 0
128) The _____ muscle can cause a forced exhalation.
A) diaphragm
B) pectoralis major
C) internal intercostal
D) external intercostal
129) The amount of air that enters the lungs during normal, restful breathing is called the _____.
A) vital capacity
B) tidal volume
C) total lung capacity
D) expiratory reserve volume
130) The amount of air that cannot be expelled is the _____.
A) total lung capacity
B) expiratory reserve volume
C) functional residual capacity
D) residual volume
131) Which of these is the sum of the other three?
A) tidal volume
B) expiratory reserve
C) vital capacity
D) inspiratory reserve
132) The total amount of air that cannot be exchanged either because of disease or because it cannot reach an exchange site is termed the _____.
A) anatomical dead space
B) physiologic dead space
C) residual volume
D) functional reserve capacity
133) The condition characterized by alveolar fibrosis with difficulty exhaling is _____.
A) bronchial asthma
B) bronchogenic carcinoma
C) emphysema
D) poliomyelitis
134) The condition characterized by difficulty breathing due to an allergic response is _____.
A) pulmonary cancer
B) bronchial asthma
C) tuberculosis
D) atelectasis
135) Non-respiratory movements are most easily triggered by stimuli in which of these areas?
A) larynx
B) alveoli
C) distal bronchioles
D) alveolar ducts
136) Which reflex involves a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm?
A) sneeze
B) hiccup
C) cough
D) yawn
137) Which reflex is caused by local alveolar decreases in oxygen content?
A) cough
B) laugh
C) hiccup
D) yawn
138) Breathing is mainly controlled by the _____.
A) local alveoli
B) medulla oblongata
C) pons
D) pneumotaxic center
139) Which area exerts its effect on the primary breathing control areas?
A) pneumotaxic area of pons
B) dorsal respiratory group
C) ventral respiratory group
D) brain stem rhythmicity centers
140) Which of the following factors favors an increase in breathing rate?
A) increased blood oxygen
B) increased blood carbon dioxide
C) increased pH
D) decreased acidity
141) Which of the following does not stimulate the medullary breathing center chemosensitive neurons?
A) low blood pH
B) low blood oxygen
C) high blood carbon dioxide
D) high spinal fluid acidity
142) Which of these is not a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
A) emphysema
B) asthma
C) lung cancer
D) bronchitis
143) Which mechanism prevents over-inflation of the lungs?
A) surfactant secretion
B) blood pH levels
C) the chemoreceptor reflexes
D) Hering-Breuer reflex
144) Which is the most common cause of hyperventilation?
A) low pH
B) high pH
C) anxiety
D) high carbon dioxide
145) Which is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
A) oxygen
B) carbon dioxide
C) argon
D) nitrogen
146) What is the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen?
A) 160 mm Hg
B) 21%
C) 760 mm Hg
D) 0.3 mm Hg
147) What is the normal PCO2 of the capillary blood?
A) 0.05 mm Hg
B) 45 mm Hg
C) 40 mm Hg
D) 104 mmHg
148) What is the normal PO2 of the alveolar air?
A) 40 mm Hg
B) 45 mm Hg
C) 104 mm Hg
D) 50 mm Hg
149) Where is the highest amount of carbon dioxide found?
A) in the air
B) in the alveoli
C) the arteries entering the lung
D) the veins leaving the lung
150) Which condition is characterized by inflammation and infection involving the alveoli?
B) tuberculosis
C) pneumonia
D) atelectasis
151) Most of the oxygen in the blood is found in the _____.
A) plasma
B) hemoglobin
C) iron
D) capillaries
152) At high PO2 levels, where is most oxygen located?
A) oxyhemoglobin
B) hemoglobin
C) plasma
D) free heme
153) Which of the following factors favors a release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
A) decreased CO2
B) decreased pH
C) lower blood temperature
D) increased pH
154) Which of these has the highest affinity for hemoglobin?
A) CO2
B) nitrogen
C) O2
155) Where is most carbon dioxide transported?
A) in the plasma
B) as carbaminohemoglobin
C) as bicarbonate
D) on the heme
156) The most important factor that allows the blood to carry carbon dioxide in high amounts is _____.
A) pressure
B) tissue production
C) carbonic anhydrase
D) hemoglobin affinity
157) The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body is called _________________.
A) external respiration
B) internal respiration
C) pulmonary ventilation
D) cellular respiration
158) Which of these functions cannot be attributed to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity?
A) warms incoming air
B) filters particles from incoming air
C) moistens incoming air
D) initial gas exchange between air and blood occurs here
159) The ____________ cartilage(s) mark(s) the lowermost portion of the larynx.
A) cricoid
B) thyroid
C) epiglottic
D) corniculate
160) The true vocal cords are those that produce the sounds of the human voice. Where are these located?
A) opposite the cuneiform cartilages
B) superior to the false vocal cords
C) inferior to the false vocal cords
D) within the pharynx
161) Within the bronchial tree, which tubes are small branches that enter the lobules of the lungs?
A) terminal bronchioles
B) alveolar ducts
C) intralobular bronchioles
D) lobar bronchi
162) Thin-walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts of the lungs are the ___________________.
A) alveolar ducts
B) alveolar sacs
C) alveoli
D) respiratory bronchioles
163) The primary force responsible for air moving into the lungs during inhalation is _________________.
A) atmospheric pressure
B) muscular contraction
C) reduced surface tension inside the lungs
D) muscular relaxation
164) The phospholipid known as _____________ reduces surface tension within the alveoli so they do not collapse during exhalation.
A) surfactant
B) lipoprotein
C) beryllium
D) alveolar membrane lipoprotein
165) The force of exhalation is primarily due to _____________________.
A) greater atmospheric pressure outside the lungs than inside
B) elastic recoil of thoracic muscles
C) forceful blowing to remove air from the lungs
D) muscular contraction
166) Even after the most forceful exhalation, a certain volume of air remains in the lungs. This volume is called the ________________.
A) tidal volume
B) expiratory reserve volume
C) vital capacity
D) residual volume
167) The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible is the _________________.
A) total lung capacity
B) inspiratory reserve volume
C) vital capacity
D) expiratory reserve volume
168) The basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by which portion of the brain?
A) peripheral chemoreceptors
B) dorsal respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center
C) ventral respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center
D) pneumotaxic area
169) The respiratory membrane, across which gases diffuse, is very thin and is made up of _______________.
A) alveolar macrophages and the alveolar cell membrane
B) alveolar cell membrane and its basement membrane
C) alveolar cell membrane and capillary membrane
D) alveolar cell membrane, capillary membrane, and fused basement membranes
170) Whether oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood or not is dependent upon the partial pressure of _______________.
A) oxygen in the lungs and in the blood
B) oxygen in the lungs only
C) oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
D) all gases in the atmosphere and blood
171) Within the blood, oxygen is primarily transported __________________ while the bulk of carbon dioxide is transported _________________.
A) in association with hemoglobin; as carbon dioxide, dissolved in the plasma
B) as deoxyhemoglobin; as carbaminohemoglobin
C) as oxyhemoglobin; as bicarbonate ions
D) dissolved in the plasma; as carbaminohemoglobin
172) What is the first structure in this respiratory sequence?
A) lungs
B) trachea
C) larynx
D) pharynx
173) Which structures play the greatest role in warming and humidifying air?
A) ethmoid sinus
B) soft palate
C) conchae
D) frontal sinus
174) The area directly superior to the soft palate is the _____.
A) larynx
B) nasopharynx
C) oral cavity
D) oropharynx
175) Which sinuses are not paranasal sinuses?
A) mastoid
B) ethmoid
C) sphenoid
D) frontal
176) Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?
A) oropharynx
B) oral cavity
C) laryngopharynx
D) nasopharynx
177) Which passageway serves as a common route for food or air?
A) esophagus
B) laryngopharynx
C) nasopharynx
D) trachea
178) What is the opening to the larynx called?
A) trachea
B) epiglottis
C) laryngopharynx
D) glottis
179) What is the Adam's apple directly part of?
A) thyroid cartilage
B) tracheal rings
C) cricoid cartilage
D) epiglottis
180) Which part of the bronchial tree has the greatest relative percentage of smooth muscle fibers?
A) trachea
B) alveoli
C) bronchi
D) bronchioles
181) The only structures that allow gas diffusion across them are the _____.
A) bronchioles
B) alveoli
C) alveolar ducts
D) bronchi
182) Which factor normally prevents the alveoli from collapsing during expiration?
A) the thickness of the alveolar membranes
B) the amount of cartilage within bronchi
C) pressure within the thoracic cavity
D) secretion of surfactant
183) The space between the two lungs is called the _____.
A) pleural cavity
B) thoracic space
C) mediastinum
D) pericardial cavity
184) What are the most powerful stimuli for breathing?
A) high pH; high CO2
B) low pH; low CO2
C) low pH; high CO2
D) high pH: low CO2


185) In order to maintain homeostasis, chloride ions follow as bicarbonate moves out of the erythrocyte.
A) True
B) False
186) The main purpose for cellular oxygen is to provide a means of producing most of the cell energy.
A) True
B) False
187) During the act of swallowing the epiglottis moves upward and the glottis appears as a triangular slit.
A) True
B) False
188) The alveoli exchange gases between the air and the capillaries within them.
A) True
B) False
189) The diaphragm is a dome-shaped smooth muscle organ innervated by the phrenic nerves.
A) True
B) False
190) The surface tension associated with the lungs can either cause the lungs to expand or collapse.
A) True
B) False
191) Respiratory distress syndrome in an infant results from an inability to breathe because of excess surfactant production in the alveoli by type I cells.
A) True
B) False
192) During inspiration the diaphragm moves upward while the thorax expands and moves outward.
A) True
B) False
193) When the diaphragm contracts, the pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases.
A) True
B) False
194) The compliance of the lung increases as the lungs expand.
A) True
B) False
195) The anatomical dead space represents the air that is trapped in the alveoli and is around 150mL.
A) True
B) False
196) The alveolar dead space is a volume of air that cannot cross the alveoli because of a disease process.
A) True
B) False
197) Bronchogenic carcinoma is a lung cancer that has spread or metastasized from some outside organ.
A) True
B) False
198) The alveolar ventilation rate is usually less than the minute respiratory volume.
A) True
B) False
199) There are chemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies which are very sensitive to fluctuations in the levels of blood oxygen.
A) True
B) False
200) Decreasing blood oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide cause the major increases seen in breathing rate during strenuous exercise.
A) True
B) False
201) Hyperventilation causes its symptoms mainly because it results in respiratory acidosis.
A) True
B) False
202) The respiratory membrane is the simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli.
A) True
B) False
203) There are phagocytic cells within the lungs that move among the alveoli to remove foreign particles.
A) True
B) False
204) If the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide were 45 mm Hg, carbon dioxide would not readily diffuse into the air.
A) True
B) False
205) The PO2 in the pulmonary veins is less than the PO2 in the alveolar air.
A) True
B) False
206) Retrolental fibroplasia develops in an infant who does not have sufficient blood oxygen.
A) True
B) False
207) ARDS is a condition of lung collapse or atelectasis in a newborn.
A) True
B) False
208) At high altitudes it is difficult to breathe because the air has a lower percentage of oxygen.
A) True
B) False
209) Oxygen dissociates faster from hemoglobin during exercise.
A) True
B) False
210) Carbon dioxide and oxygen compete for binding sites with the hemoglobin.
A) True
B) False
211) When swallowing, the soft palate would have to move downward in order to prevent food from entering the lungs.
A) True
B) False
212) The smooth muscle within the vocal cords allows them to change their tension for vocalization.
A) True
B) False
213) The trachea contains rings of cartilage that surround the windpipe to keep it rigid.
A) True
B) False
214) The lungs contain a ciliated mucous lining that helps remove foreign particles from them.
A) True
B) False
215) The respiratory membrane is comprised of the two layers of the alveoli.
A) True
B) False