STUDY QUESTIONS
Muscle Anatomy & Physiology
Answers are provided below each question

  1. Which of the following cell types is responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration?
    1. Myoepithelial cell
    2. Myofibril
    3. Satellite cell
    4. Myofibroblast
    5. Fibroblast
  2. How many T-tubules lie within a single skeletal muscle sarcomere?
    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4
  3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is the name given to which of the following?
    1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum in smooth muscle cells
    2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the epimysium
    3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum in all muscle cells
    4. Rough endoplasmic reticulum in cardiac muscle cells
  4. The connective tissue layer that bundles skeletal muscle fibers into fascicles is the:
    1. Perichondrium
    2. Perineurium
    3. Perimysium
    4. Epimysium
    5. Endomysium

  5. An overlap of actin and myosin filaments occurs in the:
    1. A Band
    2. I Band
    3. Z Line
    4. H Band
    5. M Line
  6. In skeletal muscle, a triad refers to which of the following?
    1. A T tubule sandwiched between 2 dilated cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    2. A Z line flanked by 2 A bands
    3. An A band flanked by 2 I bands
    4. An H zone flanked by 2 A bands
    5. A Z line flanked by 2 sarcomeres
  7. Which of the following does not describe skeletal muscle fibers?
    1. Striated
    2. Typically voluntary
    3. Multinucleate
    4. Branched
  8. Intercalated disks:
    1. Are found only in smooth muscle
    2. Are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle
    3. Are part of the neuromuscular junction in bipennate muscles
    4. Are located at the M line
    5. Contain desmosomes and gap junctions
  9. Motor units:
    1. Are found only in cardiac muscle
    2. Are largest in muscles responsible for delicate movements
    3. Consist of a muscle fiber and all the nerves that supply it
    4. Consist of a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it supplies
    5. Are the same as neuromuscular junctions
  10. The cell type least likely to contain more than one nucleus is a(n):
    1. Skeletal muscle fiber
    2. Osteoclast
    3. Cardiac muscle cell
    4. Smooth muscle cell
    For the next 5 questions, use the following 4 choices.
    Answers may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
    1. Epimysium
    2. Perimysium
    3. Endomysium
    4. None of the above
  11. Surrounds individual myofilaments
  12. Surrounds whole named muscles
  13. Surrounds individual fascicles
  14. Surrounds individual muscle fibers

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. The connective tissue wrapping around a muscle that is continuous with tendons is the:
    1. Perimysium
    2. Endomysium
    3. Epimysium
    4. Ectomysium
  2. In muscle tissue, neurotransmitter receptors are located:
    1. In synaptic vesicles
    2. On the motor neuron axon terminals
    3. In the synaptic cleft
    4. On the motor end plate
  3. An action potential is:
    1. A migrating region of membrane potential reversal
    2. A flow of electrons along the sarcolemma
    3. A nucleophilic reaction between Na and K ions
    4. Something that is only caused by acetylcholine
  4. Acetylcholinesterase:
    1. Produces acetylcholine
    2. Is the acetylcholine receptor in muscle tissue
    3. Is responsible for smooth but not skeletal muscle contraction
    4. Degrades the neurotransmitter which is found in the neuromuscular junction
  5. Tetanus toxin causes convulsive paralysis by:
    1. Blocking acetylcholine from binding to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
    2. Inhibiting acetylcholinesterase
    3. Causing motor neurons to release massive amounts of acetylcholine
    4. Blocking acetylcholine from being released by motor neurons
  6. A person suffering from nerve gas exposure is given atropine to counter the effects because:
    1. Atropine will bind to and electrophilically inactivate the nerve gas
    2. Atropine blocks the nerve gas receptor
    3. Atropine blocks the acetylcholine receptor which prevents the lingering excess ACh from having adverse effects
    4. Atropine inactivates acetylcholinesterase
  7. Which of the following is NOT TRUE?
    1. All muscle tissue is contractile
    2. Skeletal muscle is voluntary but smooth muscle is not
    3. Superficial fascia holds skin to muscle
    4. Muscles use the skeleton as leverage points as they push against bones to produce body movement
  8. Skeletal muscle is described by all of the following EXCEPT:
    1. Striated
    2. Voluntary
    3. Multinucleate
    4. Autorhythmic
    5. Contractile
  9. The walls of hollow organs and some blood vessels contain this type of muscle tissue.
    1. Striated
    2. Skeletal
    3. Cardiac
    4. Voluntary
    5. Smooth
  10. Which of the following is unique to cardiac muscle tissue?
    1. Involuntary
    2. Striated
    3. Non-striated
    4. Contains actin AND myosin
    5. Contains intercalated disks
  11. Approximately, what percentage of heat is generated by muscle tissue?
    1. 15%
    2. 35%
    3. 65%
    4. 85%
    5. 95%
  12. A muscle fascicle is a bundle of:
    1. Myofibrils
    2. Sarcomeres
    3. Fibers
    4. Muscles
    5. Muscle cells
    6. 2 of the above
  13. Skeletal muscle is described by all of the following EXCEPT:
         a) striated
         b) voluntary
         c) multinucleate
         d) autorhythmic
       
     

  14. The walls of hollow organs and some blood vessels contain this muscle tissue:
         a) striated
         b) skeletal
         c) cardiac
         d) smooth
       
     

  15. Which of the following is unique to cardiac muscle tissue:
         a) is involuntary
         b) is non-striated
         c) has intercalated discs
         d) contains smooth muscle tissue
       
     

  16. Approximately what percentage of body heat is generated by muscle tissue:
         a) 15%
         b) 30%
         c) 55%
         d) 85%
         e) 98%
       
     

  17. A muscle fascicle is a:
         a) bundle of myofibrils
         b) bundle of connective tissue
         c) bundle of muscle fibers
         d) muscle cell
       
     

  18. The smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle is a:
         a) sarcomere
         b) motor unit
         c) synapse
         d) thin filament
       
     

  19. The major regulatory proteins in muscle tissue are:
         a) myosin and tropomyosin
         b) myosin and actin
         c) actin and troponin
         d) troponin and tropomyosin
       
     

  20. Which of the following actions is caused by skeletal muscle:
         a) constriction of blood vessels
         b) heartbeat
         c) dilation of pupil     
         d) eye movements
       
     

  21. Which of the following does NOT occur in a muscle during contraction:
         a) thick and thin filaments bind to each other
         b) muscle fibers stretch
         c) thick and thin filaments "slide" past each other
         d) muscle fibers shorten
       
     

  22. This process aids in skeletal muscle relaxation after contraction:
         a) calcium is released from intracellular storage sites
         b) motor neurons send electrical signal to muscle
         c) acetylcholinesterease degrades acetylcholine
         d) troponin binds calcium
       
     

  23. The stiffness of muscle tissue in rigor mortis partially results from:
         a) excessive acetycholine activity on muscle
         b) excessive calcium release in muscle
         c) excessive lactic acid build up
         d) excessive contraction of the fibers
       
     

  24. A single motor neuron may innervate as few as 3-5 fibers in muscles of the:
         a) upper arms
         b) legs
         c) eye
         d) heart
       
     

  25. When an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal of the motor neuron:
         a) calcium is released inside of the muscle fiber
         b) acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft
         c) acetylcholinesterease is released into the synaptic cleft
         d) physical contact between the motor neuron and the muscle fiber occurs
       
     

  26. Lack of acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft would result in:
         a) decrease acetylcholine production by the motor neuron
         b) relaxation of the muscle fiber
         c) excessive, continuous stimulation of the muscle fiber
         d) inability of the motor neuron to stimulate the muscle fiber
       
     

  27. Curare, a toxin, blocks the acetylcholine receptors on muscle tissue. This would result in:
         a) increased stimulation of the muscle fiber
         b) inability of the muscle to respond to motor nerve stimulus
         c) contraction of the muscle fiber
         d) excessive contractions and convulsions
       
     

  28. Training excersizes such as jogging, swimming and aerobics have this effect on skeletal muscle tissue:
         a) increase number of mitochondria per muscle fiber
         b) increase number of muscle fibers
         c) increase number of motor units
         d) increase number of skeletal muscles
       
     

  29. Muscular dystrophy is a congenital disorder characterized by
         a) skeletal muscle degeneration
         b) excessive convulsions
         c) shaking and trembling
         d) only cardiac damage
       
     

  30. Which of the following muscular disorders characterized by painful musculoskeletal "tender points":
         a) fibromyalgia  
         b) myasthenia gravis  
         c) Duchenne muscular dystrophy  
         d) Becker muscular dystrophy
       
     

  31. Anabolic steroids have all these effects except:
         a) builds muscle proteins
         b) increases muscle strength
         c) increases number of muscles in the body
         d) can result in liver cancer and heart disease
       
     

  32. Which of the following statements regarding aging and the muscular system is true:
         a) aging is associated with decreased myoglobin production  
         b) the effects of aging can be nearly completely reversed  
         c) satellite cells increase in aging causing fibrosis  
         d) young persons have more adipose in muscles compared to elderly persons

       
     

  33. The smallest contractile unit in a skeletal muscle fiber is a ____________.
  34. The major regulatory proteins in muscle tissue are:
    1. Myosin and tropomyosin
    2. Myosin and actin
    3. Actin and rhodopsin
    4. Troponin and tropomyosin
    5. Calmodulin and keratin
  35. Which of the following actions is caused by skeletal muscle?
    1. Vasoconstriction
    2. Vasodilation
    3. Pupillary dilation
    4. Eye movements
    5. Heartbeat
  36. Which of the following does NOT occur in a muscle during a contraction?
    1. Thick and thin filaments interact
    2. Muscle fibers stretch
    3. Thick and thin filaments "slide" past one another
    4. Muscle fibers shorten
  37. This process aids in skeletal muscle relaxation after contraction.
    1. Ca2+ is released from intracellular storage sites
    2. Motor neurons send electrical signals to muscle fibers
    3. Acetylcholinesterase synthesizes acetylcholine
    4. Troponin binds Ca2+
    5. None of the above
  38. The stiffness of muscle tissue in rigor mortis partially results from excessive:
    1. ACh activity on muscle
    2. Ca2+ release in muscle
    3. Lactic acid build up
    4. Fiber contraction
    5. All of the above
  39. A single motor neuron may innervate as few as 3 fibers in the muscles of the:
    1. Brachial region
    2. Eye
    3. Anterior cervical region
    4. Gingiva
    5. Calf
  40. When an AP reaches the presynaptic terminal of the motor neuron:
    1. Calcium is released into the muscle fiber
    2. ACh is released into the synaptic cleft
    3. AChase is released into the synpatic cleft
    4. Calcium is released from the motor neuron nucleus
  41. Lack of AChase in the synaptic cleft would result in:
    1. Excessive, continuous stimulation of the muscle fiber
    2. Relaxation of the muscle fiber
    3. Increased Na+ synthesis by the muscle fiber
    4. Inability of the motor neuron to conduct further action potentials
  42. The toxin curare blocks the ACh receptors on muscle tissue. This would result in:
    1. Increased stimulation of the muscle fiber
    2. Increased contractile strength of the muscle fiber
    3. Nonconsecutive eccentric contractions
    4. Excessive contractions
    5. Inability of muscle to respond to the motor neuron stimulus
  43. Jogging, swimming, and aerobics all have this effect on skeletal muscle tissue.
    1. Increased # of mitochondria per muscle cell
    2. Increased # of muscle fibers
    3. Increased # of motor units
    4. Decreased # of skeletal muscle fibers
    5. None of the above
  44. Muscular dystrophy is a congenital disorder characterized by:
    1. Skeletal muscle degeneration
    2. Excessive convulsions
    3. Compulsive muscle spasms
    4. Smooth muscle hypertrophy
  45. Anabolic steroids have all these effects EXCEPT:
    1. Muscle protein synthesis
    2. Increased muscular strength
    3. Increased number of muscles in the body
    4. Possible liver cancer
    5. Possible testicular atrophy
  46. Which of the following statements regarding aging and the muscular system is true?
    1. Aging is associated with decreased myoglobin production
    2. Effects of aging can be nearly reversed
    3. The satellite cells will differentiate into motor neurons when an individual is advanced in age
    4. Youngsters have more adipocytes in muscle tissue than the elderly
61) Which of the following types of muscle are found in the stomach?
 
  A) cardiac
 
  B) skeletal
 
  C) visceral
 
  D) striated
62) A large broad sheet of connective tissue, such as on the abdomen, is called a/an _____ .
 
  A) aponeurosis
 
  B) epimysium
 
  C) perimysium
 
  D) endomysium
63) The membrane that is the closest to the individual muscle fiber is the _____ .
 
  A) aponeurosis
 
  B) epimysium
 
  C) perimysium
 
  D) endomysium
64) A group of skeletal muscle fibers is called a/an _____.
 
  A) perimysium
 
  B) fascicle
 
  C) epimysium
 
  D) tendon
65) The structure that connects muscles to bones is the _____.
 
  A) aponeurosis
 
  B) fascicle
 
  C) tendon
 
  D) ligament
66) The fiber cell membrane is termed the _____ .
 
  A) myofibril
 
  B) myosin
 
  C) myofilament
 
  D) sarcolemma
67) Which of the following does not belong with the others?
 
  A) myofilament
 
  B) myosin
 
  C) sarcoplasmic reticulum
 
  D) actin
68) The smallest, functional unit of contraction is the _____.
 
  A) fiber
 
  B) sarcomere
 
  C) filament
 
  D) myofibril
69) The I bands in a sarcomere are made of _____ .
 
  A) myosin
 
  B) actin and myosin
 
  C) tropomyosin
 
  D) actin
70) The _____ zone contains only myosin and is in the center of a sarcomere.
 
  A) A
 
  B) I
 
  C) M
 
  D) H
71) The gap between the muscle and a nerve is the _____.
 
  A) synapse
 
  B) motor end plate
 
  C) myoneural junction
 
  D) motor neuron
72) The chemical that crosses a neuromuscular gap is _____.
 
  A) sodium
 
  B) a protein
 
  C) a neurotransmitter
 
  D) calcium
73) The combination of a neuron and the muscle fiber it associates with is called a _____ .
 
  A) fascicle
 
  B) motor end plate
 
  C) motor unit
 
  D) myoneural junction
74) The most abundant of the muscle proteins is _____ .
 
  A) actin
 
  B) troponin
 
  C) myosin
 
  D) tropomyosin
75) The main force of contraction occurs when actin forms a chemical complex with _____ .
 
  A) troponin
 
  B) myosin
 
  C) tropomyosin
 
  D) acetylcholine
76) When a muscle is at rest, which of the following is not associated chemically with the others?
 
  A) actin
 
  B) myosin
 
  C) troponin
 
  D) tropomyosin
77) During the contraction of a sarcomere, calcium ions bind with the protein _____.
 
  A) actin
 
  B) myosin
 
  C) troponin
 
  D) tropomyosin
78) The main neurotransmitter involved in skeletal muscle contraction is _____.
 
  A) adrenalin
 
  B) noradrenalin
 
  C) acetylcholine
 
  D) dopamine
79) Which molecule directly supplies energy to myosin to allow the filaments to contract?
 
  A) adenosine diphosphate
 
  B) ATP
 
  C) creatine phosphate
 
  D) creatinine
80) How is excess sugar stored within muscle fibers?
 
  A) in ATP
 
  B) as glycogen
 
  C) as glucose
 
  D) as creatinine
81) Which main factor allows muscle to sustain contraction even during times when the blood supply is low?
 
  A) the presence of hemoglobin
 
  B) glycogen storage
 
  C) myoglobin
 
  D) citric acid cycle
82) The reddish brown color of muscle is due to the presence of _____ molecules.
 
  A) creatine phosphate
 
  B) hemoglobin
 
  C) iron
 
  D) myoglobin
83) Which molecule is produced during exercise, resulting in the oxygen debt?
 
  A) glycogen
 
  B) lactate
 
  C) pyruvate
 
  D) ATP
84) Which of the following does not belong with the others?
 
  A) white muscles
 
  B) fast-contracting
 
  C) extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum
 
  D) relatively large supply of myoglobin
85) About _____% of ATP energy becomes liberated as heat from muscle metabolism.
 
  A) 25
 
  B) 50
 
  C) 75
 
  D) 10
86) Contractions called _____ occur whenever the forces applied to a muscle are increased, but the muscle does not appear to be moving.
 
  A) isotonic
 
  B) isometric
 
  C) tetanic
 
  D) summation contractions
87) Which of the following muscles always requires nerve impulses in order to contract?
 
  A) multi-unit smooth
 
  B) skeletal
 
  C) visceral smooth
 
  D) cardiac
88) Which type of muscle is found in the wall of blood vessels?
 
  A) skeletal
 
  B) cardiac
 
  C) smooth visceral
89) Since smooth muscle fibers have rhythmicity and can stimulate each other, they contract in a pattern called _____.
 
  A) a functional syncytium
 
  B) peristalsis
 
  C) tetany
 
  D) tonus
90) The degeneration of muscle fibers caused by a lack of proper stimulation and usage is called _____.
 
  A) hypertrophy
 
  B) atrophy
 
  C) dystrophy
 
  D) peristalsis
91) The following cause smooth muscles to contract except which one?
 
  A) acetylcholine
 
  B) troponin
 
  C) norepinephrine
 
  D) oxytocin
92) The presence of _____ allow cardiac muscle fibers to transmit impulses faster among themselves.
 
  A) cell membranes
 
  B) nerve fibers
 
  C) intercalated disks
 
  D) peristalsis
93) Muscles that act together to cause the same movements are called _____.
 
  A) synergists
 
  B) antagonists
 
  C) prime movers
 
  D) agonists
94) Which muscle causes smiling and is attached to the corners of the lips?
 
  A) zygomatic
 
  B) buccinator
 
  C) temporalis
 
  D) orbicularis oris
95) The _____ is the broad flat muscle on the neck, which causes frowning.
 
  A) sternocleidomastoid
 
  B) platysma
 
  C) buccinator
 
  D) pterygoid
96) A condition called temporomandibular syndrome can be caused by contraction of the _____.
 
  A) buccinator
 
  B) masseter
 
  C) platysma
 
  D) frontalis
97) The following muscles belong together except which one?
 
  A) masseter
 
  B) pterygoid
 
  C) temporalis
 
  D) digastric
98) The antagonist of the sternocleidomastoid is the _____.
 
  A) splenius capitis
 
  B) digastric
 
  C) trapezius
 
  D) semispinalis capitis
99) The triangular shaped muscle on the back that rotates the shoulder is the _____
 
  A) trapezius
 
  B) rhomboid
 
  C) deltoid
 
  D) levator scapulae
100) The _____ muscle acts to elevate the shoulders.
 
  A) rhomboideus
 
  B) levator scapulae
 
  C) pectoralis major
 
  D) deltoid
101) Adduction of the scapulae in a posterior view is mainly accomplished by the _____.
 
  A) trapezius
 
  B) rhomboideus
 
  C) serratus anterior
 
  D) pectoralis minor
102) The _____ will move the shoulders on a forward plane.
 
  A) pectoralis major
 
  B) pectoralis minor
 
  C) deltoid
 
  D) serratus anterior
103) An antagonist of the teres major is the _____.
 
  A) pectoralis major
 
  B) supraspinatus
 
  C) infraspinatus
 
  D) subscapularis
104) The _____ is a common intramuscular injection site, which flexes the shoulder or extends the arm.
 
  A) pectoralis major
 
  B) deltoid
 
  C) trapezius
 
  D) coracobrachialis
105) Which triangular thoracic muscle causes the arms to move towards the midline?
 
  A) subscapularis
 
  B) teres minor
 
  C) pectoralis major
 
  D) latissimus dorsi
106) A synergist with the biceps brachii is the _____.
 
  A) triceps brachii
 
  B) brachialis
 
  C) deltoid
 
  D) supinator
107) The pronator teres inserts on the _____.
 
  A) radius
 
  B) ulna
 
  C) humerus
 
  D) scapula
108) The following belong together except which one?
 
  A) flexor carpi radialis
 
  B) palmaris longus
 
  C) flexor digitorum profundus
 
  D) extensor carpi ulnaris
109) Which of the following does not belong with the rest?
 
  A) external oblique
 
  B) transversus abdominis
 
  C) internal oblique
 
  D) rectus abdominis
110) The following can be grouped together except which one?
 
  A) coccygeus
 
  B) sphincter urethrae
 
  C) bulbospongiosus
 
  D) ischiocavernosus
111) The psoas major is the antagonist to the _____.
 
  A) psoas minor
 
  B) gluteus maximus
 
  C) iliacus
 
  D) pectineus
112) The _____ muscle attaches to a long band of tendon which runs down the lateral aspect of the leg.
 
  A) iliacus
 
  B) tensor fasciae latae
 
  C) adductor longus
 
  D) gracilis
113) The _____ muscle causes one to cross the leg by adducting the thigh and flexing the lower leg.
 
  A) iliopsoas
 
  B) sartorius
 
  C) gracilis
 
  D) adductor magnus
114) Which muscle runs from the anterior superior iliac spine to the medial tibial surface near the patella?
 
  A) vastus medialis
 
  B) vastus lateralis
 
  C) semitendinosus
 
  D) sartorius
115) Which of the following does not belong with the others?
 
  A) semimembranosus
 
  B) biceps femoris
 
  C) sartorius
 
  D) semitendinosus
116) Which of these does not belong with the others?
 
  A) vastus intermedius
 
  B) rectus femoris
 
  C) vastus medialis
 
  D) biceps femoris
117) The following cause dorsiflexion of the foot except which one?
 
  A) extensor digitorum longus
 
  B) soleus
 
  C) tibialis anterior
 
  D) peroneus tertius
118) Which of the following is attached to the calcaneus?
 
  A) gastrocnemius
 
  B) tibialis posterior
 
  C) peroneus longus
 
  D) peroneus tertius
119) The _____ is inserted on the base of the first metatarsal.
 
  A) soleus
 
  B) tibialis anterior
 
  C) tibialis posterior
 
  D) extensor digitorum longus
120) A disease which results in muscle weakness because of abnormal neuromuscular junction activity is _____.
 
  A) poliomyelitis
 
  B) myasthenia gravis
 
  C) multiple sclerosis
 
  D) muscular dystrophy
121) The layer of connective tissue that separates the muscle tissue into small sections is called the ______________.
 
  A) aponeuroses
 
  B) epimysium
 
  C) perimysium
 
  D) endomysium
122) The segment of a myofibril that is called a sarcomere runs from ____________.
 
  A) one Z line to the next Z line
 
  B) one H zone to the next H zone
 
  C) one A band to the next A band
 
  D) one end of a skeletal muscle to the opposite end
123) The ______________ are an invagination of the muscle cell's sarcolemma.
 
  A) sarcoplasmic reticula
 
  B) transverse (T) tubules
 
  C) cisternae
 
  D) microtubules
124) Into what does the neuron release its neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction?
 
  A) motor end plate
 
  B) cytoplasm of the muscle cell
 
  C) cisternae
 
  D) synaptic cleft
125) A motor unit is made up of _______________.
 
  A) all the muscle fibers within a given muscle
 
  B) a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates
 
  C) all the neurons going into an individual section of the body
 
  D) a fascicle and a nerve
126) The crossbridges involved in muscle contraction are located on the ____________.
 
  A) myosin myofilaments
 
  B) actin myofilaments
 
  C) tropomyosin
 
  D) dystrophin
127) Which of these statements is correct regarding muscle contraction?
 
  A) All motor units act together.
 
  B) Muscle contraction continues for long periods after nervous stimulation ceases.
 
  C) The crossbridges bind to the actin and shorten the sarcomeres.
 
  D) Dystrophin is not needed to strengthen the contracting muscle cell.
128) The type of muscle found in the irises of the eyes and in the blood vessels is called _______________.
 
  A) visceral smooth muscle
 
  B) multiunit smooth muscle
 
  C) cardiac muscle
 
  D) skeletal muscle
129) Why can cardiac muscle fibers contract for longer periods than skeletal muscle fibers?
 
  A) Cardiac muscle is self-excitatory.
 
  B) Extracellular calcium partially controls the strength (and length) of contraction.
 
  C) Cisternae of T-tubules is more developed in cardiac muscle.
 
  D) Cardiac muscle is uninucleate rather than multinucleate.
130) Which muscle enables you to pucker your lips for a kiss?
 
  A) epicranius
 
  B) buccinator
 
  C) orbicularis oris
 
  D) orbicularis oculi
131) The muscle that enables you to elevate and adduct your scapula is the ____________.
 
  A) serratus anterior
 
  B) sternocleidomastoid
 
  C) splenius capitis
 
  D) rhomboideus major
132) Which muscle is the strongest flexor of the elbow?
 
  A) brachialis
 
  B) biceps brachii
 
  C) brachioradialis
 
  D) deltoid
133) The biceps femoris is one hamstring muscle located on the back of the thigh. Which muscle is another hamstring?
 
  A) adductor magnus
 
  B) semitendinosus
 
  C) gluteus maximus
 
  D) quadriceps femoris
134) Which of the following does not belong with the others?
 
  A) multinucleated
 
  B) skeletal
 
  C) striated
 
  D) involuntary
135) Each muscle fiber is directly surrounded by connective tissue called the _____.
 
  A) perimysium
 
  B) fascia
 
  C) endomysium
 
  D) epimysium
136) Which term is the smallest subdivision in this group?
 
  A) fiber
 
  B) fibril
 
  C) filament
 
  D) actin
137) Which description of muscle contraction means that all of the fibers within a muscle are fully contracted?
 
  A) all-or-none law
 
  B) summation
 
  C) tetanic
 
  D) muscle twitching
138) The term _____ refers to the constant state of contraction of a certain number of fibers within a muscle.
 
  A) atrophy
 
  B) hypertrophy
 
  C) summation
 
  D) tone
139) Muscles that are not used, may degenerate or undergo a process of _____.
 
  A) atrophy
 
  B) hypertrophy
 
  C) fatigue
 
  D) tetany
140) Muscles that act to cause similar movements are called _____.
 
  A) antagonists
 
  B) origins
 
  C) insertions
 
  D) synergists
141) The major muscle lining the cheek is the _____.
 
  A) orbicularis oculi
 
  B) orbicularis oris
 
  C) zygomaticus
 
  D) buccinator
142) The triangle shaped muscle which antagonizes the sternocleidomastoid is the _____.
 
  A) deltoid
 
  B) pectoralis major
 
  C) external oblique
 
  D) trapezius
143) The antagonist to the triceps brachii is the _____.
 
  A) deltoid
 
  B) pectoralis major
 
  C) brachialis
 
  D) serratus anterior

 
144) Tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the connective tissue associated with muscles.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
145) The myofilaments are comprised of myofibril units.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
146) The tropomyosin-troponin complexes block the active sites on the actin preventing the contraction.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
147) Troponin is a muscle protein whose chemical activity causes contraction of muscle fibers.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
148) Acetylcholine causes the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
149) Energy is normally not consumed during the relaxation process.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
150) The enzyme acetylcholinesterase acts to increase the force of a muscle contraction.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
151) Food poisoning from botulism can cause death from respiratory failure.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
152) The inability to contract, or fatigue, is primarily caused by a lack of glucose and oxygen in muscle.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
153) The liver can convert lactic acid to glucose.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
154) Skeletal muscles continue to contract following death.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
155) Red muscles are slow contracting and are typically found in the eyelids and hands.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
156) Smooth muscles are not striated and as such do not have actin and myosin filaments.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
157) Smooth muscle can be stimulated to contract by stretching.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
158) Smooth muscle fibers usually can respond faster than skeletal muscle.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
159) Cardiac muscle is striated, found only in the heart, and does not rely on calcium as much as skeletal muscles do for contraction.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
160) The heart only contains cardiac muscle.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
161) The part of the muscle that moves is referred to as its insertion.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
162) A muscle causing flexion is the antagonist to one that could cause extension at the same time.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
163) The orbicularis muscles are sphincter muscles, which cause the eyes to squint and lips to compress.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
164) The temporalis is attached to the temporal bone and plays its greatest role in facial expression.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
165) The triceps brachii is an antagonist of the brachioradialis.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
166) The triceps has one head of origin on the humerus and two on the scapula.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
167) The biceps brachii is located on the humerus but has no major attachments to the humerus.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
168) In general, the flexors of the hand and fingers are located on the posterior surface of the forearm.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
169) The abdominal muscles commonly insert on the linea alba.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
170) There are skeletal muscles attached to the penis or clitoris.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
171) When one is standing upright, the gluteus muscles are mainly in a state of relaxation.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
172) The term muscle fiber is synonymous with a group of muscle cells.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
173) The heart muscle will still contract even if removed from the body.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
174) It is easier to fatigue an arm muscle than the heart muscle.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
175) A skeletal muscle also contains smooth muscle fibers within it.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
176) A nerve fiber comes in direct contact with a muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
177) The expression "oxygen debt" refers to the lack of sufficient oxygen and lactic acid for contraction.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False
178) Isotonic contractions occur as one pushes against the wall of a building.
 
  A) True
 
  B) False