Answers are provided below each question

1) The smallest structure capable of carrying out all life processes is the _______________________.


2) Homeostasis is maintained primarily via ____________ feedback mechanisms.


3) The sum of all chemical reactions in the body is known as _________________.

TRUE OR FALSE: True = A False = B.

4) When a red blood cell swells it has undergone crenation.

5) The term homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a relatively stable internal and external environment.

6) Growth of a tissue due to increase in cell size is called hypertrophy.

7) Anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen.

8) Glucose enters cells by a process called facilitated diffusion.

9) Ions will have a positive or negative charge.

10) Mitosis is a type of sexual reproduction.

11) Chromosomes are made up of DNA.

12) All metabolic activities require oxygen.

13) Enzymes are able to speed up chemical reactions.

14) Anabolic metabolism requires energy.

(Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.)

A) Ribosome
B) cell membrane
C) endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
D) lysosome
E) mitochondrion

15) May be attached to ER, or free in the cytoplasm

16) Membranous sac of digestive enzymes

17) Regulates passage of material into and out of the cell

18) Contains cristae

19) Usually described as a fluid-mosaic model

20) Plays an important role in autophagy

21) Contains DNA, can move and reproduce

22) The appearance may be rough or smooth

23) Made up of interconnected tubules


24) Which of the following is classified as a monosaccharide?

A) sucrose
B) glycogen
C) glucose
D) lactose
E) starch.

25) As a result of mitosis, each new cell has:

A) twice as many chromosomes as its parent cell
B) half as many chromosomes as its parent cell
C) four times as many chromosomes as its parent cell
D) the same number of chromosomes as its parent cell
E) none of the above

26) Cells placed in an isotonic solution will:

A) shrink
B) swell
C) neither swell nor shrink

27) Which of the following correctly lists the levels of organization from least complex to most complex?

A) cellular, tissue, chemical system, organ, organism
B) chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
C) tissue, cellular, chemical, organ, system, organism
D) chemical, tissue, cellular, system, organ, organism
E) organism, system, organ, tissue cellular, chemical

28) An organ is defined as a structure that has a specific structure and is composed on two or more different types of:

A) molecules
B) cells
C) systems
D) tissues
E) membranes

29) The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body is known as

A) growth
B) reproduction
C) metabolism
D) differentiation
E) responsiveness

30) The two body systems that regulate homeostasis are the:

A) cardiovascular and respiratory systems
B) cardiovascular and urinary systems
C) cardiovascular and endocrine systems
D) nervous and cardiovascular systems
E) nervous and endocrine systems

31) Which of the following best describes the endocrine system?

A) It regulates homeostasis by means of nerve impulses
B) It absorbs nutrients
C) It contains hair, skin, and nails |
D) It produces blood cells that transport oxygen.
E) It is made up of glands that secrete hormones

32) The body system that distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells is the:

A) respiratory system
B) cardiovascular system
C) endocrine system
D) urinary system
E) integumentary system

33) The system that plays the major role in regulating the volume and chemical composition of blood, eliminating wastes, and regulating fluid and electrolyte balance is the:

A) respiratory system
B) cardiovascular system
C) endocrine system
D) urinary system
E) integumentary system

34) Which of the following are considered part of the integumentary system?

A) liver, stomach, and intestines
B) brain and spinal cord
C) hormone‑secreting glands
D) kidneys and urinary bladder
E) hair, skin, and nails

35) Which of the following is an example of a positive feedback loop?

A) A neuron is stimulated, thus opening membrane channels to allow sodium ions to leak from the extracellular fluid to the intracellular fluid. This causes more membrane channels to open, thus allowing more sodium ions to enter the intracellular fluid.
B) Baroreceptors notify the brain that the blood pressure has increased. The brain then notifies the blood vessels to dilate, thus lowering the blood pressure.
C) Low levels of glucose in the blood cause the pancreas to release less insulin (a hormone that lowers blood glucose).
D) Elevated body temperature is sensed by cells in the brain. As a result, sweat is produced, and heat is lost as the water in the sweat evaporates.
E) An auto factory produces 1000 cars per week. The sales office could sell 1200 cars per week. Extra production personnel are added at the factory to meet the sales demand.

36) You are eating a hot fudge sundae. The pleasant taste information is sensed by your taste buds, which notify your brain. Your brain releases endorphins, which make you feel very good. You now associate the good feeling with hot fudge sundaes, so you eat another hot fudge sundae. Now you feel even better. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding this scenario?

A) This is a negative feedback loop because two hot fudge sundaes will make you sick.
B) This is a positive feedback loop because the results make you feel good.
C) This is a negative feedback loop because you were doing something bad for your health in the first place, and the result makes the situation worse.
D) This is a positive feedback loop because the stimulus (eating a hot fudge sundae) and the effect (eating another hot fudge sundae) are the same.
E) This is a negative feedback loop because the stimulus (eating a hot fudge sundae) and the effect (eating another hot fudge sundae) are the same.

37) Which of the following best defines tissue?

A) the basic structural and functional unit of an organism
B) the molecules that form the body's structure
C) a group of cells and the surrounding materials that work together to perform a particular function
D) a group of related organs with a common function
E) the membranes that cover organs

38) Which of the following body systems provides protection against disease and returns proteins and plasma to the cardiovascular system?

A) respiratory
B) urinary
C) endocrine
D) lymphatic
E) integumentary

39) Which of the following is TRUE regarding the skeletal system?

A) It provides support and protection.
B) It stores minerals.
C) It assists in body movements.
D) It houses cells that give rise to blood cells.
E) All of the above are true.

40) Place the following in correct sequence from the simplest to most complex:

1. Molecules
2. Atoms
3. Tissues
4. Cells
5. Organ

A) 1,2,3,4,5
B) 2,1,4,3,5
C) 2,1,3,4,5
D) 1,2,4,3,5.

41) Which statement is not true concerning characteristics of life?

A)  All body cells exhibit irritability to some extent
B)  Each organ system is isolated from all other body systems
C)  Growth can be an increase in size due to an increase in the number of cells
D)  Reproduction occurs on both the cellular and organismal level

42) Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains:

A)  The lowest possible energy usage
B)  A relatively stable internal environment, within limits
C)  A static state with no deviation from preset points
D)  A changing state, within an unlimited range

43) Human bodies are able to maintain a certain constancy of their internal environment.  This statement

A)  Refers only to the physiology of the vascular (circulatory) system
B)  Refers to homeostasis in the body
C)  Tells how positive feedback mechanisms work
D)  Refers to the direct control of cell activities by nucleic acids
E)  is not true in very old or very young humans

44) Anabolism is the:

A)  Breakdown of matter
B)  Expulsion of matter
C)  Synthesis of matter
D)  All of the answers are correct

45) If a response enhances the original stimulus, the system is classified as a ______ feedback system.

A)  Neutral
B)  Polarized
C)  Deficit
D) Negative
E) Positive

46) Define the term homeostasis. Identify the components of a typical feedback loop, and describe the role of each.

47) Explain how a positive feedback loop differs from a negative feedback loop.