Answers are provided below each question

1) The space in the middle of the thoracic cavity where the heart resides is the:
    a) pericardial cavity
    b) pericardium
    c) pleural cavity
    d) mediastinum
    e) dorsal cavity

2) The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the:
    a) right atrium
    b) left atrium
    c) interventricular septum
    d) interatrial septum
    e) pulmonary trunk

3) Which blood vessel does NOT bring blood directly to the heart:
    a) great cardiac vein
    b) coronary sinus
    c) inferior vena cava
    d) superior vena cava

4) If communication between the SA node and the AV node becomes blocked which is most certainly affected:
    a) the ventricles will contract at a slower rate
    b) afterload will increase
    c) the atria will contract at a slower rate
    d) stroke volume will increase
    e) all of the above

5) If there is a blockage between the AV node and AV bundle, how will this affect the appearance of the ECG:
    a) P-R interval would be smaller
    b) QRS interval would be longer
    c) there would be more P waves than QRS complexes
    d) there would be more QRS complexes than P waves
    e) the T wave would not be present

6) What effect would compressing the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm have on cardiac function:
    a) stroke volume would decrease
    b) cardiac output would decrease
    c) sympathetic stimulation of the heart would eventually increase
    d) heart rate would eventually increase
    e) all of the above

7) A valve damaged by rheumatic fever fails to open completely.  This is called:
    a) stenosis
    b) heart block
    c) ischemia
    d) MI
    e) fibrillation

8) A patient with CAD (coronary artery disease) is experiencing severe angina and self-administers sublingual nitroglycerin.  This will act as a(n):
    a) cardiac beta-blocker
    b) coronary vasodilator
    c) coronary vasoconstrictor
    d) anticoagulant blood-thinner
    e) angioplastic agent

9) Blood returning from the lungs enters the heart through the:
    a) pulmonary semilunar valve
    b) mitral valve
    c) right ventricle
    d) left atrium
    e) vena cava

10) According to Starling's Law of the heart, cardiac output is directly related to:
    a) the size of the ventricles
    b) the heart rate
    c) amount of blood returning to the heart
    d) end-systolic volume
    e) cardiac reserve

11) The T wave on an ECG represents:
    a) ventricular depolarization
    b) ventricular repolarization
    c) atrial depolarization
    d) atrial repolarization
    e) ventricular systole

12) Cardiac output is equal to:
    a) diastolic BP + 1/3(systolic BP-diastolic BP)
    b) HR x SV
    c) EDV-ESV
    d) EDV-SV x HR
    e) HR x BP

13) During ventricular systole:
    a) the atria are contracting
    b) the AV valves are closed
    c) the pressure inside the ventricles is less than in the atria
    d) the mitral valve is closed
    e) blood is ejected into the atria

14) In general, veins exhibit this characteristic when compared to arteries:
    a) are thinner walled
    b) have more smooth muscle in the tunica media
    c) carry faster moving blood
    d) have thicker endothelium
    e) are more elastic

15) The blood vessels that play the most important role in the regulation of blood flow to a tissue and blood pressure are the:
    a) arterioles
    b) capillaries
    c) venules
    d) arteries
    e) veins

16) As blood travels from the aorta to the capillaries:
    a) pressure increases
    b) viscosity increases
    c) resistance increases
    d) velocity increases
    e) flow increases

17) The internal carotids and the basilar artery are interconnected by an anastomosis call the:
    a) brachiocephalic trunk
    b) common carotid artery
    c) coronary sinus
    d) throughway channel
    e) circle of Willis

18) A patient with an hypothalamic tumor causes excessive ADH secretion. When her blood pressure is taken which of the following readings would you expect:
    a) 95/65
    b) 115/80
    c) 120/65
    d) 165/100

19) The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the:
    a) mean arterial blood pressure
    b) blood pressure
    c) pulse pressure
    d) end-ventricular pressure

20) Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis:
    a) male
    b) diabetes
    c) smoking
    d) high HDL level
    e) high dietary fat intake

MATCHING: Location of structures. (Items A through C may be used more than once.)

A) Atrium
B) aorta
C) ventricle

21. Chordae tendineae
22. Coronary arteries arise from this structure
23. Papillary muscles
24. Sinoatrial node
25. Purkinje fibers
26. Semilunar valves
27. Auricle.

TRUE OR FALSE: True=A False=B.

28. The AV node is commonly called the pacemaker.
29. A vessel that carries blood to the heart is always called a vein.
30. The heart lies anterior to the sternum and posterior to the vertebral column
31. Another name for the tricuspid valve is right atrioventricular valve.
32. Destruction of bone marrow by chemicals or X rays is known as aplastic anemia.
33. Myeloid tissues include the tonsils, thymus, and lymph nodes
34. Glycogenolysis refers to the conversion of glycogen to glucose
35. The aortic valvular auscultatory area is located over the left 2nd intercostal space
36. The average adult has about 8 liters of blood
37. Cardiac muscle fibers are striated, involuntary, multinucleated cells
38. The systemic circulation consists of blood vessels that transport blood to the lungs for gaseous exchange and then back to the heart.

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the best answer.

39. Blood is carried to the walls of the right atrium and right ventricle by the artery.

A. marginal
B. posterior interventricular
C. circumflex
D. anterior interventricular
E. carotid.

40. The amount of oxygen is greatest in the blood found in the:

A. right atrium
B. right ventricle
C. coronary sinus
D. left atrium
E. superior vena cave.

41. Which of the following is not part of the cardiac conducting system?

A. AV node
B. AV sulcus
C. SA node
D. AV bundle
E. Purkinje fibers.

42. Which of the following does not open into, or out of, the left atrium?

A. superior vena cave
B. coronary sinus
C. inferior vena cave
D. all of the preceding.

43. By far the greatest bulk of the heart wall consists of:

A. epicardium
B. myomysium
C. endomysium
D. myocardium E.epimysium.

44. The chordae tendineae and papillary muscles play an important roll in the normal function of the:

A. AV node
B. AV sulcus
C. AV bundle
D. AV valves
E. AV auricle

MATCHING. Use The List Below For The Next Five Questions. Items in the list may be used more than once

A) T wave
B) 2nd hears sound (dub)
C) QRS wave
D) P wave
E) 1st heart sound (lub).

45. Atrial depolarization
46. Closure of pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves at the onset of ventricular diastole.
47. Ventricular depolarization
48. Closure of the AV valves at the onset of ventricular systole
49. Ventricular depolarization.

TRUE OR FALSE. True=A; False=B.

50. Isovolumetric relaxation is characterized by the closure of both AV and semilunar valves
51. The cardiac electrical conduction system is made up of specialized cardiac muscle fibers
52. Diabetes insipidus is associated with hypersecretion of ADH
53. The pulmonary arteries carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
54. The surface of the heart contains sulci
55. An ECG is also known as an EKG.

MATCHING: (Items A through D may be used more than once.)

A) Left atrium
B) left ventricle
C) Both A and B
D) Neither A nor B.

56. Walls are composed of three layers
57. Presence of chordae tendineae
58. Contains papillary muscles
59. Receives blood from the inferior vena cave
60. Walls contain cardiac muscle fibers
61. Purkinje fibers are present in the walls
62. Contains osseous tissue
63. Receives blood from the superior vena cave
64. Walls contain the thickest myocardium
65. Receives blood from the coronary sinus
66. Has a pouch-like extension called an auricle


67. The "lub" or first heart sound, is produced by closing of:

A. the aortic semilunar valve
B. the pulmonary semilunar valve
C. the tricuspid valve
D. the bicuspid valve
E. both atrioventricular valves.

68. The QRS wave of an EKG (=ECG) is produced by:

A. depolarization of the atria
B. repolarization of the atria
C. depolarization of the ventricles
D. repolarization of the ventricles
E. answers A and C.

69. Cardiac output is:

A. (CR + SV)
B. (SV-CR)
C. (CR x SV)
D. (SP x SV)
E. (SP - DP)

70. During the phase of isovolumetric contraction of the ventricles, the pressure in the ventricles is:

A. rising
B. falling
D.none of the preceding.

71. Stimulated sympathetic nerve endings in the musculature of the atria and ventricles will cause:

A. an increase in the rate of heart contraction
B. an increase in the time spent in systole when the cardiac rate is high
C. a decrease in the rate of heart contraction
D. answers B and C.

72.Stroke volume strength is regulated by:

    A. EDV
    B. ventricular contraction strength
    C. mean arterial pressure
    D. all of the preceding

  1. The space in the middle of the thoracic cavity where the heart resides is the:
    1. Pericardial cavity
    2. Pericardium
    3. Pleural Cavity
    4. Mediastinum
    5. Dorsal Cavity
  2. The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the:
    1. Right atrium
    2. Left atrium
    3. Interventricular septum
    4. Interatrial septum
    5. Pulmonary trunk
  3. Which blood vessel does NOT bring deoxygenated blood directly to the heart?
    1. Pulmonary vein
    2. Coronary Sinus
    3. Inferior Vena cava
    4. Superior Vena Cava
  4. If communication between the SA node and the AV node became blocked, which will most likely occur?
    1. The rate of ventricular contraction will decrease
    2. Afterload will increase
    3. The rate of atrial contraction will decrease
    4. Stroke volume will increase to 5L/beat
    5. All of the above
  5. If there is a blockage between the AV node and the AV bundle, how will this affect the appearance of the EKG?
    1. PR interval would be smaller
    2. QRS interval would be shorter
    3. There would be more P waves than QRS complexes
    4. There would be more QRS complexes than P waves
    5. The T wave would be absent
  6. What effect would compressing the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm have on cardiac function?
    1. Stroke volume would decrease
    2. Cardiac output would decrease
    3. Sympathetic stimulation of the heart would eventually increase
    4. Heart rate would eventually increase
    5. All of the above
  7. A valve damaged by rheumatic fever fails to open completely. This is known as:
    1. Stenosis
    2. Heart Block
    3. Ischemia
    4. MI
    5. Fibrillation
  8. Accodrding to the Frank-Starling Law of the heart, CO is directly related to:
    1. Ventricular muscle mass
    2. Heart Rate
    3. Amount of blood returning to the heart
    4. ESV
    5. Cardiac Reserve
  9. The T Wave on an EKG represents:
    1. Ventricular Depolarization
    2. Ventricular Repolarization
    3. Atrial Depolarization
    4. Atrial Repolarization
    5. Ventricular Systole
  10. Cardiac output is equal to:
    1. HR x SV
    2. HR/SV
    3. EDV - ESV
    4. (EDV-SV) x HR
    5. HR x BP
  11. During ventricular systole:
    1. The atria are contracting
    2. The AV valves are closed
    3. The intraventricular pressure is less than the intraatrial pressure
    4. The mitral valve is open
    5. Blood is forced into the ligamentum arteriosum
  12. Which of the following represents the outermost layer of the heart?
    1. Epicardium
    2. Parietal pericardium
    3. Myocardium
    4. Subendocardium
    5. Endocardium
  13. Increased sympathetic stimulation will cause HR to______________.
  14. Moderate increase in preload will cause SV to___________.
  15. Increased EDV will cause preload to ______________________.
  16. Decreased cardiac contractility will cause SV to _________________ and will cause CO to _________________.
  17. Decreased SV as with congestive heart failure will cause ESV to _________.
  18. Increased ESV will cause EDV to ___________________ and Preload to ____________.
  19. Excessively increased EDV will cause SV to _________________ and CO to __________________.
  20. Increased activation of Beta-1 receptors on the SA node will cause the number of QRS complexes per minute to ___________________.
  21. Excessively high HR will cause PR interval to _________________, ventricular fill time to ____________, EDV to ______________, preload to __________, and SV to _______________.
  22. Moderate to intense (but not maximal) exercise will cause HR to _________, SV to __________, and CO to ____________.
  23. Hypertension will cause afterload to _____________ and that in turn will cause ESV to _____________ and SV to _____________.
  24. As arterial BP increases, medullary cardioacceleratory area activity _______.
  25. As atrial EDV increases, plasma ANP levels _______.
  26. As HR decreases and VR remains constant, SV will _______.
  27. As parasympathetic stimulation increases, CO _______.
  28. As SV increases, PP _______.
  29. As SV decreases, VR _______.
  30. Name the pacemaker of the heart.
  31. What structure electrically isolates the atria from the ventricles?
  32. Which portion of the heart's intrinsic conduction system has the lowest conduction velocity? Why is it slower here?
  33. Are the AV valves open or closed during ventricular systole?
  34. Which heart structure has the greatest rate of spontaneous depolarization?
  35. Which great vessel delivers blood to the systemic circulation?
  36. Which great vessel delivers blood to the lungs?
  37. Shortly after (100ms to be precise) the QRS complex of the ECG:
    1. The mitral valve is __________
    2. The aortic valve is ___________
    3. The pressure in the right atrium is _______ than the pressure in the right ventricle.
    4. The ventricular volume is __________ and the atrial volume is _________
  38. Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?
    1. Closure of the semilunar valves
    2. Contraction of the crista terminalis
    3. Contraction of ventricular musculature
    4. Closure of the AV valves
    5. All of the above
    6. 2 of the above
  39. The left ventricular wall is thicker than the right ventricular wall in order to:
    1. Accommodate a greater volume of blood
    2. Expand the thoracic cage during diastole
    3. Pump a greater volume of blood
    4. Pump blood with greater pressure
    5. Pump blood through a smaller valve
  40. Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the _________________

  41. Blood is carried towards myocardial capillaries by ________________
  42. Norepinephrine acts on myocardial contractile cells by:
    1. Decreasing the force with which they contract
    2. Increasing the rate of Cl- conductance during an AP
    3. Blocking the formation of cAMP
    4. Increasing the rate at which AP threshold is reached
  43. If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that:
    1. The heart would stop
    2. The heart rate would decrease
    3. The heart rate would increase
    4. Parasympathetic stimulation to the blood vessels would increase in an attempt to compensate
  44. The foramen ovale:
    1. Connects the atria in the fetal heart
    2. Is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus remains open
    3. Is a remnant of the fetal conus arteriosus
    4. Is a connection between the fetal pulmonary trunk and aorta
  45. Which blood vessel of the heart receives highly oxygenated blood as a result of right ventricular systole?
    1. Aorta
    2. Pulmonary Trunk
    3. Pulmonary Veins
    4. 2 of the above
    5. None of the above
  46. The tricuspid valve is closed:
    1. While the ventricles are in diastole
    2. While the ventricles are in systole
    3. By the movement of blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle
    4. By the movement of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium
    5. All of the above
    6. 2 of the above
    7. None of the above
    Look at the following sketch of an EKG trace.

  47. Which wave represents atrial depolarization?
  48. Which wave immediately precedes ventricular systole?
  49. In which wave would you expect ventricular volume to be the least?
  50. During which wave would you expect to hear the DUP sound of the heart?
  51. Which of the following depolarizes next after the AV node?
    1. Atrial myocardium
    2. Ventricular myocardium
    3. Bundle branches
    4. Purkinje fibers
  52. Given an EDV of 150mL and an ESV of 50mL, and a HR of 60bpm, then cardiac output is:
    1. 600 mL/min
    2. 6 L/min
    3. 60000 mL/min
    4. None of the above
  53. The statement "strength of contraction increases intrinsically due to increased stretching of the heart wall" is best attributed to:
    1. Poiusseille's Law
    2. Bainbridge Reflex
    3. Frank-Starling Law
    4. Faraday's Law
    5. Henry's Law
  54. The thickest layer of the heart wall is the _______________.
  55. ______________occurs when large amounts of inflammatory fluid seep into the pericardial cavity and compress the heart.
  56. An increase in heart rate will cause preload to:
    1. Increase
    2. Decrease
    3. Stay the same
  57. A decrease in myocardial contractility will cause, EDV to:
    1. Increase
    2. Decrease
    3. Stay the same
  58. True or False - Atrial systole is responsible for the majority of ventricular filling.
  59. The majority of cardiac muscle cells are:
    1. Striated
    2. Joined by intercalated discs
    3. Not autorhythmic
    4. All of the above
    5. 2 of the above
  60. Increased activity of the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla oblongata will cause ESV to:
    1. Increase
    2. Decrease
    3. Stay the same
  61. During ventricular isovolumetric relaxation, the volume of blood in the atria is:
    1. Increasing
    2. Decreasing
    3. Staying the same
  62. Mitochondria make up 25% of the volume of which of the following cells?
    1. Erythrocytes
    2. Thrombocytes
    3. Cardiac contractile cells
    4. Skeletal muscle cells
  63. Which of the following is true of the heart?
    1. Its apex points towards the left hip and its base points toward the left shoulder
    2. 2/3 of its mass lies above the diaphragm and 1/3 lies below the diaphragm
    3. It is anterior to both the sternum and the vertebral column
    4. It is enclosed within the medial cavity of the thorax
  64. The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is also known as the ______________.
  65. The internal walls of the ventricular chambers are marked by irregular ridges of muscle called ____________________.
  66. Typically, the right ventricle has a stroke volume that is:
    1. Less than the SV of the left ventricle
    2. More than the SV of the left ventricle
    3. Equal to the SV of the left ventricle
  67. What valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle?
  68. A valve that does not close properly is said to be:
    1. Stenosed
    2. Competent
    3. Incompetent
    4. Redundant
  69. Which of the following is not true of cardiac autorhythmic cells?
    1. They constitute 1% of the myocardium
    2. They contain a large # of contractile fibers
    3. They have the ability to spontaneously depolarize
    4. They can be found in the interventricular septum
  70. The only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles is the:
    1. AV node
    2. AV delay
    3. AV valve
    4. AV bundle
  71. Which of the following contains the least amount of parasympathetic innervation?
    1. SA node
    2. AV node
    3. Ventricular myocardium
  72. As EDV increases, SV will _________.
  73. As HR increases, ventricular filling time will _____________.
  74. As afterload increases, ESV will ______________ and SV will ___________.
  75. The T wave of an electrocardiogram indicates _______________.
  76. During atrial systole:
    1. The tricuspid and bicuspid valves are closed but the semilunar valves are open
    2. The bicuspid valve is open but the mitral valve is closed
    3. Both semilunar valves and both AV valves are open
    4. Both AV valves are open and both semilunar valves are closed
  77. As preload increases, ventricular myocardial contractility will __________.
  78. Severing the left and right branches of the vagus nerve leading to the heart would cause cardiac output to ________________.
  79. A variety of events occur in the cardiac cycle when the semilunar valves are OPEN. Select the lettered answer that contains all the correct numbered events.
    1. The ventricles have completed contraction
    2. Blood is entering the pulmonary trunk
    3. Blood is entering the left ventricle
    4. The atria are in diastole
    5. The ventricles are in systole
    6. The AV valves are closed
    1. 1,2,3,4,5, and 6
    2. 1,2,4,5, and 6 only
    3. 4 and 5 only
    4. 4,5, and 6 only
    5. None of the above
  80. The "DUP" sound of the heart is due to:
    1. Opening of the AV valves
    2. Opening of the semilunar valves
    3. Snapping shut of the AV valves
    4. Snapping shut of the semilunar valves
  81. As skeletal muscle activity decreases, EDV will ________________.
  82. Epinephrine will cause HR to ___________ and SV to _______________.
  83. To decrease the SA node's rate of depolarization, one should electrically stimulate the __________ nerve.
  84. Stimulation of the caudal end of a cut vagus nerve should cause:
    1. Increased DBP
    2. Decreased DBP
    3. Increased TPR
    4. Decreased TPR
  85. IV infusion of epinephrine should cause:
    1. Increased ESV
    2. Decreased ESV
    3. Increased vasodilation of blood vessels serving skeletal muscles
    4. Increased myocardial contractility
    5. C and d
    6. B and d
    7. B, c, and d
  86. As the caudal end of a cut vagus nerve is stimulated, mean arterial pressure will _______________.
  87. Immediately following the T wave in an ECG, aortic pressure will ____________.
  88. Nitroprusside is a vasodilator. Does it increase or decrease the workload on the heart? Why?

161) Where is the heart specifically located?
A) thoracic cavity
B) mediastinum
C) pleural cavity
D) ventral cavity
162) The apical heartbeat in an adult is best heard at the level of the _____.
A) diaphragm
B) first rib
C) fifth intercostal space
D) seventh intercostal space
163) The membrane closest to the heart muscle is the _____.
A) fibrous pericardium
B) visceral pericardium
C) parietal pericardium
D) peritoneum
164) What is a prominent symptom of pericarditis?
A) increase in blood pressure
B) an irregular heart beat
C) severe chest pain
D) high fever
165) Which part of the heart is usually damaged by scarlet fever or syphilis?
A) pericardium
B) myocardium
C) epicardium
D) endocardium
166) The atrioventricular sulcus separates the _____.
A) atria and ventricle areas
B) right from left ventricle
C) right atrium from right ventricle
D) right from left atrium
167) Blood from the cardiac muscle itself drains into the _____.
A) superior vena cava
B) left ventricles
C) right ventricle
D) coronary sinus
168) The superior vena cava enters the _____ of the heart.
A) right ventricle
B) right atrium
C) left atrium
D) left ventricle
169) Mitral valve prolapse is a condition that causes blood to back flow into the _____.
A) right atrium
B) right ventricle
C) left atrium
D) left ventricle
170) The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents back flow of blood into the _____.
A) right atrium
B) left atrium
C) right ventricle
D) left ventricle
171) Which of the following contains blood with a relatively high oxygen content?
A) left ventricle
B) right ventricle
C) right atrium
D) superior vena cava
172) Which of the following contains blood with a relatively low oxygen content?
A) left ventricle
B) aorta
C) pulmonary vein
D) pulmonary artery
173) Which of the following does not belong with the others?
A) right coronary artery
B) left coronary artery
C) circumflex artery
D) anterior interventricular artery
174) Which term indicates that tissue in the heart has died?
A) coronary thrombosis
B) angina pectoris
C) ischemia
D) infarction
175) Which term refers to the severe chest pain evident during an attack of myocardial ischemia?
A) hypoxia
B) infarction
C) angina
D) diaphoresis
176) When does blood flow into the coronary arteries?
A) during ventricular contraction
B) during atrial contraction
C) when the heart is at rest
D) during ventricular relaxation
177) About _____% of the atrial blood flows into the ventricles before the atria contract.
A) 10
B) 70
C) 50
D) 30
178) The atria will empty during ______.
A) atrial diastole
B) atrial systole
C) ventricular diastole
D) ventricular systole
179) The first heart sound results when the _____.
A) ventricle contracts
B) semilunar valves close
C) A-V valves close
D) atria contract
180) A stethoscope placed at the tip of the sternum will best be able to detect which sound?
A) tricuspid valve
B) bicuspid valve
C) aortic
D) pulmonary
181) Which fiber system is the first to depolarize in a cardiac cycle?
A) atrioventricular node
B) sinoatrial node
C) bundle of His
D) Purkinje fibers
182) Which chamber of the heart contains the pacemaker?
A) right ventricle
B) right atrium
C) left ventricle
D) left atrium
183) The _____ allows the atria to communicate with the ventricles.
A) SA node
B) A-V bundle
C) A-V node
D) Purkinje fibers
184) Which part of the heart is the last to become excited during a cardiac cycle?
A) apex
B) atria
C) ventricular septum
D) superior ventricular region
185) Which area allows the atria to completely empty as the ventricles fill with blood?
A) A-V node
B) A-V bundle
C) S-A node
D) Purkinje fibers
186) The cardiac reflex control centers are located within the _____.
A) hypothalamus
B) medulla oblongata
C) aorta
D) heart
187) The pressoreceptors located in the _____ respond to stretching by slowing the rate of the heart.
A) medulla
B) aortic sinus
C) jugular vein
D) heart
188) The purpose of the medullary cardiac centers is to _____.
A) increase heart rate
B) decrease heart rate
C) maintain heart rate
D) maintain blood pressure
189) The increase in heart rate caused by seeing a wild dog run after you is probably the result of the _____.
A) medullary accelerator center
B) hypothalamus
C) sympathetic nerves
D) increase in blood pressure
190) Where does the repolarization of the atria occur?
A) P wave
B) QRS complex
C) T wave
D) U wave
191) The time taken for an impulse to travel from the S-A to the A-V node is evidenced in the _____.
A) QRS complex
B) S-T interval
C) P-Q interval
D) QRS-T interval
192) The most serious and life threatening arrhythmia of the heart is _____.
A) tachycardia
B) bradycardia
C) flutter
D) fibrillation
193) An ectopic pacemaker causes the arrhythmia called a _____.
A) flutter
B) premature beat
C) fibrillation
D) bradycardia event
194) The _____ layer of an artery contains the greatest amount of smooth muscle.
A) endothelium
B) tunica intima
C) tunica media
D) tunica adventitia
195) Which of the following does not have the ability to contract?
A) veins
B) arteries
C) venules
D) capillaries
196) Which capillary beds have the greatest permeability?
A) liver
B) smooth muscle
C) pancreas
D) heart
197) Which area contains the tightest capillary endothelial junctions?
A) spleen
B) skeletal muscle
C) brain
D) thyroid gland
198) Which of these areas totally lack capillaries?
A) spinal cord
B) cartilage
C) dermis
D) gall bladder
199) Which factor assists venous return to the heart?
A) valves
B) inspiration
C) skeletal muscle
D) all of these
200) The highest pressure exerted by the heart is called the _____.
A) systolic pressure
B) diastolic pressure
C) pulse pressure
D) mean arterial pressure
201) The condition called _____ is characterized by some defect or weakness in a vessel wall.
A) phlebitis
B) aneurysm
C) arteriosclerosis
D) atherosclerosis
202) The obstructive accumulation of cholesterol in a vessel is the result of _____.
A) arteriosclerosis
B) phlebitis
C) atherosclerosis
D) plaque
203) The average blood pressure in an artery is the _____.
A) diastolic
B) systolic
C) 120/80 mmHg
D) mean arterial
204) The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle each minute is calculated from which formula?
A) heart rate + stroke volume
B) heart rate X stroke volume
C) heart rate divided by stroke volume
D) heart rate - stroke volume
205) The three factors that contribute to arterial blood pressure are cardiac output, blood volume and _____.
A) viscosity
B) resistance
C) valves
D) heart rate
206) The central venous pressure is the pressure in the _____.
A) superior vena cava
B) right atrium
C) left atrium
D) jugular veins
207) Which are the first vessels to branch off the aorta?
A) right subclavian
B) left subclavian
C) brachiocephalic
D) coronary arteries
208) The three arteries that arise from the aortic arch are the left subclavian, left common carotid and _____.
A) right subclavian
B) right common carotid
C) brachiocephalic
D) celiac
209) The left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries come from the _____.
A) superior mesenteric
B) celiac
C) splanchnic
D) inferior mesenteric
210) The diaphragm is supplied by the _____ artery.
A) phrenic
B) suprarenal
C) adrenal
D) gonadal
211) The following vessels will direct blood to the brain except which one?
A) common carotid
B) internal carotid
C) vertebral
D) jugular
212) The brachial artery divides into the radial and _____.
A) axillary
B) ulnar
C) cephalic
D) subclavian
213) The _____ will send blood into the femoral artery.
A) external iliac
B) internal iliac
C) pudendal
D) popliteal
214) The _____ vein represents a functional connection between the superior and inferior vena cavae.
A) thoracic
B) azygos
C) intercostal
D) cephalic
215) The superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the _____ vein.
A) hepatic
B) hepatic portal
C) gastric
D) inferior mesenteric
216) The longest vein in the body is the _____.
A) femoral
B) gluteal
C) brachial
D) saphenous
217) In an ECG, where does the depolarization of the atria occur?
A) P wave
B) QRS complex
C) T wave
D) U wave
218) Which layer of the following serves the dual purpose of forming the inner layer of the pericardium and forming the outermost wall of the heart?
A) fibrous pericardium
B) parietal pericardium
C) visceral pericardium
D) myocardium
219) The layer of the heart that forms a smooth, protective lining of the heart chambers and valves is the _______________.
A) endocardium
B) myocardium
C) epicardium
D) parietal pericardium
220) The bicuspid valve __________________.
A) is located on the left side of the heart
B) guards the auricles of the heart
C) guards the entrance to the aorta
D) guards the entrance to the pulmonary trunk
221) The _____________ has the thickest wall because it pumps blood to the ________________.
A) right atrium; systemic circuit
B) right ventricle; lungs
C) left atrium; lungs
D) left ventricle; systemic circuit
222) Freshly oxygenated blood enters the heart through the ______________, and is pumped out the _____________.
A) right atrium; aorta
B) left atrium; aorta
C) right ventricle; pulmonary arteries
D) left ventricle; pulmonary arteries
223) Someone suffering a heart attack in his anterior lower right ventricle probably had a blockage in which coronary artery?
A) anterior interventricular artery
B) circumflex artery
C) posterior interventricular artery
D) marginal artery
224) When do the A-V valves close during the cardiac cycle?
A) when pressure inside the ventricles is at its lowest
B) when pressure inside the atria is greater than that inside the ventricles
C) when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the atria
D) when pressure is greater in the aorta than in the left ventricle
225) How does the impulse to contract slow down slightly before it is transferred into the ventricles?
A) It makes a detour and travels to the brain and back.
B) There is a parasympathetic brake on the AV node.
C) Junctional fibers leading into the AV node have very small diameters.
D) The skeleton of the heart prevents the impulse from being transmitted rapidly.
226) What does the electrocardiogram (ECG) QRS wave indicate is happening in the heart?
A) The atria are depolarizing.
B) The ventricles are depolarizing while the atria repolarize.
C) The ventricles are repolarizing.
D) The heart is at rest.
227) Which artery supplies blood to the ilium and muscles of the lower back?
A) aorta
B) common iliac artery
C) internal iliac artery
D) iliolumbar artery
228) A deep wound to the upper thigh might damage the _____________ artery.
A) femoral
B) popliteal
C) anterior tibial
D) peroneal
229) Blood is drained from the face, scalp, and superficial regions of the neck by the _______________.
A) carotid arteries
B) external jugular veins
C) internal jugular veins
D) brachiocephalic veins
230) A unique venous system, called the ________________, carries blood directly from the intestines to the liver for processing rather than directly into the inferior vena cava.
A) hepatic portal system
B) superior mesenteric vein
C) saphenous vein
D) gonadal vein
231) The inability of the left ventricle to pump blood adequately to the body's cells is indicative of ________________.
A) an embolus
B) cardiac tamponade
C) congestive heart failure
D) asystole
232) A condition in which there is a congenital predisposition for a ruptured aorta is _____________.
A) a metabolic disorder of fatty acid metabolism
B) Marfan syndrome
C) Niemann-Pick type C disease
D) coronary artery disease
233) Which membrane is closest to the heart muscle?
A) pericardial sac
B) fibrous pericardium
C) parietal pericardium
D) visceral pericardium
234) How many openings are there in the right atrium?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
235) The _____ valve lies between the right atrium and right ventricle.
A) bicuspid
B) aortic semilunar
C) pulmonary semilunar
D) tricuspid
236) The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents a back-flow of blood into the _____.
A) pulmonary artery
B) right ventricle
C) left ventricle
D) right atrium
237) The aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from returning to the _____.
A) left ventricle
B) aorta
C) right ventricle
D) left atrium
238) Which structure contains the lowest amount of oxygen?
A) pulmonary vein
B) aorta
C) vena cava
D) left ventricle
239) Cardiac output can be determined by which of the following formulas?
A) HR - SV
B) HR divided by SV
C) HR + SV
D) HR x SV
240) The first heart sound is caused by closure of the _____ valves.
A) pulmonary semilunar
B) atrioventricular
C) aortic semilunar
D) mitral
241) The last in the cardiac conduction sequence is the _____.
A) SA node
B) AV node
C) AV bundle
D) Purkinje fibers
242) The electrical initiation of a heartbeat begins in the _____ chamber wall.
A) left ventricle
B) right ventricle
C) right atrium
D) left atrium
243) The central cardiac control region is in the _____ of the brain.
A) hypothalamus
B) medulla oblongata
C) cerebellum
D) pons
244) The T wave of an electrocardiogram represents which event?
A) ventricular depolarization
B) atrial repolarization
C) ventricular repolarization
D) atrial depolarization
245) A heartbeat of less than 60 beats per minute is called _____.
A) tachycardia
B) bradycardia
C) arrhythmia
D) fibrillation


246) A dilation in a vein is called a varicosity.
A) True
B) False
247) Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone released from the heart in response to low blood pressure.
A) True
B) False
248) Since atria always receive blood, the vessels attached to them are all termed veins.
A) True
B) False
249) An infection in an arm could spread directly to the heart.
A) True
B) False
250) The chordae tendineae are fibrous strings that attach the papillary muscles to the semilunar valves.
A) True
B) False
251) The tricuspid valve prevents a back flow of blood into the right atrium.
A) True
B) False
252) During the contraction of the ventricles, all of the valves attached to the skeleton of the heart close.
A) True
B) False
253) The blood in the pulmonary arteries has a relatively high carbon dioxide concentration.
A) True
B) False
254) Patients complain of diaphoresis, which is difficulty breathing, during a myocardial infarction.
A) True
B) False
255) The coronary circulation has a rich array of anastomoses between its arteries and veins.
A) True
B) False
256) Pressure within the atria is greatest when the ventricles are relaxing and the atria are contracting.
A) True
B) False
257) As the ventricles contract, the pressure in them exceeds the pressure in the atria.
A) True
B) False
258) A murmur is a heart sound heard when the valves do not close sufficiently.
A) True
B) False
259) A functional syncytium occurs when one cardiac muscle cell causes the ones around to inhibit their beat.
A) True
B) False
260) An injection of acetylcholine into the heart could decrease the rate of the heart.
A) True
B) False
261) The sympathetic nervous system usually has the effect of increasing heart rate.
A) True
B) False
262) The electrocardiogram tracing is a measurement of the contraction sequences of the heart.
A) True
B) False
263) Either hyperkalemia or hypokalemia could cause an irregular heart rhythm.
A) True
B) False
264) An increase in blood calcium or hypercalcemia can cause the heart to increase its pressure and have a prolonged QRS interval.
A) True
B) False
265) A slow heart rate that is diagnosed as a bradycardia condition always is abnormal and should be treated.
A) True
B) False
266) The technique called defibrillation is the application of an electric current to the chest wall with the desired effect of directly stabilizing the abnormal heart rhythm.
A) True
B) False
267) Vasoconstriction of a blood vessel causes an increase in blood pressure.
A) True
B) False
268) The control of blood flow to a specific area is related to the amount of oxygen present.
A) True
B) False
269) Normally the hydrostatic pressure of the blood exceeds its osmotic pressure which causes a loss of fluids into the tissue spaces.
A) True
B) False
270) Ankle edema or ascites is caused by an abnormal increase in blood osmotic pressure.
A) True
B) False
271) A decrease in stroke volume will cause a drop in blood pressure and a drop in heart rate will also result in a pressure decrease.
A) True
B) False
272) Starling's law of the heart states that the force of a heart chamber decreases when the chamber is full.
A) True
B) False
273) The vasomotor center in the medulla regulates blood pressure by altering the diameters of blood vessels throughout the body.
A) True
B) False
274) Hypertension is related to an increased risk for developing a heart attack, stroke or obesity.
A) True
B) False
275) Pulmonary edema may be caused by damage to the heart that has weakened the left ventricle.
A) True
B) False
276) The circle of Willis represents an anastomosis of blood vessels supplying the cranial cavity and brain.
A) True
B) False
277) Most of the average adult heart lies to the left of the midline.
A) True
B) False
278) Pericardial fluid is serous and allows the heart to beat without friction in the pericardial sac.
A) True
B) False
279) The right and left sides of the heart are separated by the interventricular septum.
A) True
B) False
280) Blood in all veins is relatively low in oxygen.
A) True
B) False
281) When an atrium is in systole the ventricle is in diastole.
A) True
B) False